Strategies that foster self-awareness, help regulate emotions, and encourage problem-solving perseverance can turn mathematical fight or flight into re-engagement.

Contributor Notes

Patricia E. Swanson,, is an associate professor of education at San José State University in California where she teaches mathematics curriculum and instruction courses to both credential and masters' candidates. Her current research focuses on the intersection of social-emotional learning skills and mathematics teaching.

(Corresponding author is Swanson
Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School
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