Three deliberate teaching practices can help students strengthen multiple connections to a unifying concept.

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### F. Paul Wonsavage

Three approaches to the Doughnut task highlight how representing functions in multiple ways can support student understanding in interpreting key features of functions within a context.

### José N. Contreras

### Megan H. Wickstrom

Preservice elementary teachers (PSTs) often enter their teacher preparation programs with procedural and underdeveloped understandings of area measurement and its applications. This is problematic given that area and the area model are used throughout K–Grade 12 to develop flexibility in students’ mathematical understanding and to provide them with a visual interpretation of numerical ideas. This study describes an intervention aimed at bolstering PSTs’ understanding of area and area units with respect to measurement and number and operations. Following the intervention, results indicate that PSTs had both an improved ability to solve area tiling tasks as well as increased flexibility in the strategies they implemented. The results indicate that PSTs, similar to elementary students, develop a conceptual understanding of area from the use of tangible tools and are able to leverage visualizations to make sense of multiplicative structure across different strategies.

### Nicole Garcia, Meghan Shaughnessy, and D’Anna Pynes

Representing and recording student thinking in public spaces during mathematics discussions is challenging work. We share principles for recording student thinking in the moment and share an activity for improving your recording practice.

### Emiliano Gómez, Risa A. Wolfson, and Introduction by: Trena L. Wilkerson

When implementing this task, you see multiple effective teaching practices at play (

### Aaron Brakoniecki, Julie M. Amador, and David M. Glassmeyer

Tasks and materials that allow for different approaches can help teachers incorporate student reasoning and can promote connections across different mathematical ideas.

### Danielle R. Divis and Tyler Johnson

This practitioner article describes a lesson carried out in a high school classroom at the conclusion of a unit on exponential growth. Two teachers use a series of music-related activities to engage students in using and connecting multiple representations of exponential growth while exploring musical frequencies on a piano.

### Micah S. Stohlmann

An escape room can be a great way for students to apply and practice mathematics they have learned. This article describes the development and implementation of a mathematical escape room with important principles to incorporate in escape rooms to help students persevere in problem solving.

### Micah S. Stohlmann

Dude Perfect has one of the most popular YouTube channels in the United States. An example mathematical activity connected to a Dude Perfect video is described along with the incorporation of assessing and advancing questions.