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## Supporting Understanding Using Representations

Three deliberate teaching practices can help students strengthen multiple connections to a unifying concept.

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## Making Connections Between Representations

Three approaches to the Doughnut task highlight how representing functions in multiple ways can support student understanding in interpreting key features of functions within a context.

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## Exploring Sequences Related to Medial Triangles

Sequences are an important topic—not only in mathematics but also in the mathematics curriculum. Exploring sequences related to medial triangles offers learners opportunities to solve problems involving sequences within geometric contexts. Sequences related to medial triangles are also a rich source of beautiful and interesting geometric patterns that can be discovered with the use of dynamic geometry software (DGS) such as GeoGebra or Web Sketchpad. In addition, exploring sequences with DGS allows learners to formulate and test conjectures, an important mathematical process. In this article, I describe how my students used GeoGebra and geometric reasoning to visualize, discover, formulate,

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## Developing Preservice Teachers’ Understanding of Area Through a Units Intervention

Preservice elementary teachers (PSTs) often enter their teacher preparation programs with procedural and underdeveloped understandings of area measurement and its applications. This is problematic given that area and the area model are used throughout K–Grade 12 to develop flexibility in students’ mathematical understanding and to provide them with a visual interpretation of numerical ideas. This study describes an intervention aimed at bolstering PSTs’ understanding of area and area units with respect to measurement and number and operations. Following the intervention, results indicate that PSTs had both an improved ability to solve area tiling tasks as well as increased flexibility in the strategies they implemented. The results indicate that PSTs, similar to elementary students, develop a conceptual understanding of area from the use of tangible tools and are able to leverage visualizations to make sense of multiplicative structure across different strategies.

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## Recording Student Thinking in a Mathematics Discussion

Representing and recording student thinking in public spaces during mathematics discussions is challenging work. We share principles for recording student thinking in the moment and share an activity for improving your recording practice.

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## “Filling Bottles with Water"

When selecting mathematical tasks to use in professional development with teachers, in-service or preservice, I am always looking for ones that model effective teaching practices, give opportunities to dig deeply into mathematics, engage the learner in multiple ways, and can readily be used in the classroom. Although there are many to choose from, “Filling Bottles with Water" (Gómez and Wolfson 2012) from Mathematics Teacher, now 10 years old, is one I use that exemplifies all four characteristics.

EFFECTIVE TEACHING PRACTICES

When implementing this task, you see multiple effective teaching practices at play (NCTM 2014

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## One Task, Multiple Proportional Reasoning Strategies

Tasks and materials that allow for different approaches can help teachers incorporate student reasoning and can promote connections across different mathematical ideas.

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## Pythagoras, PVC Pipes, and Pianos

This practitioner article describes a lesson carried out in a high school classroom at the conclusion of a unit on exponential growth. Two teachers use a series of music-related activities to engage students in using and connecting multiple representations of exponential growth while exploring musical frequencies on a piano.

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## Escape Room Math: Luna's Lines

An escape room can be a great way for students to apply and practice mathematics they have learned. This article describes the development and implementation of a mathematical escape room with important principles to incorporate in escape rooms to help students persevere in problem solving.

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## Planning Questions to Help Surface Understanding

Dude Perfect has one of the most popular YouTube channels in the United States. An example mathematical activity connected to a Dude Perfect video is described along with the incorporation of assessing and advancing questions.