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Ellen J. Hofeldt and Larry L. Hofeldt

College students and university mathematics professors frequently ask, “Do special education majors need detailed training in mathematics?” This article will assert and delineate the necessity of an all-encompassing background for special education teacher trainees. The special education teacher trainee certainly needs no less thorough training in any area than a regular elementary teacher trainee.

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Lisa A. Dieker, Michelle Stephan and Jennifer Smith

A conceptual framework can show a general education and a special education teacher how to team teach so that a range of students can learn together in today's classroom.

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Susan B. Taber and Michele Canonica

Learning mathematics has traditionally been thought of as a sequential progression. Children learn to count to ten, then to twenty, and then to one hundred. They learn to add without regrouping and then with regrouping. We teach addition before multiplication and the two-times table before the sixtimes table. We usually teach division as a separate unit after multiplication. Organizing mathematics textbooks as a sequential progression of skills promotes this perspective on teaching mathematics. When we, a special education teacher of fourthgrade students and a mathematics teacher educator at a university, joined forces to teach a unit on division to a class of ten fourth graders, we purposefully adopted a very different perspective in planning the learning activities. We found it useful to think of students' knowledge as individual networks of concepts, ideas, and procedures that were linked together in distinctive ways. Many students in the class shared some knowledge, but each student also had unique interests, talents, knowledge, and—especially—an idiosyncratic organization of that knowledge.

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Robert S. Matulis

A look at recent developments in the teaching of mathematics to special education students can benefit anyone interested or involved in the mathematics education of mentally retarded, learning disabled, emotionally disturbed, physically handicapped, or brain-damaged students. The following bibliography lists nearly two hundred articles from about fony periodicals. The articles include reports of successful practices, surv.eys, research summaries, suggestions, reviews, and opinions about mathematics for students with special learning problems.

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Ruth S. Jacobson

A device to aid the learning of addition and subtraction of fractional numbers named by like and unlike fractions has been developed in a class for children with special learning disabilities at Boston University School of Education. It is a manipulative device that provides immediate feedback on the correctness of the child's answer to a problem.

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Ruth S. Jacobson

While serving the children of Union, New Jersey, as the central learning disability specialist, and offering remediation in all academic areas of the elementary curriculum, the author found that one of the areas of weakness in Grades 3 and 4 in arithmetic was in the child's basic skill in the attack on solving word problems.

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Paulo Tan and Kathleen King Thorius

Despite the push for inclusive mathematics education, students with disabilities continue to lack access to, and achievement in, rich mathematics learning opportunities. We assert that mathematics teacher educators have a central role in addressing these contradictions. This role includes enacting facilitative moves during mathematics teacher professional learning to encounter and counter social forces, which we denote in this article as en/counters. As part of a larger study, we explored the extent to which the use of an inclusive education-oriented tool, developed and introduced during a teacher learning program, elicited en/counters that mediated participants' learning toward inclusive mathematics education. We discuss shifts in participants' conversational content and focus on surrounding practices that involved students with disabilities and features of the tool and processes that supported these shifts, including specific facilitative moves that helped redirect deficit-focused conversations.

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Sarah Theule Lubienski and Andrew Bowen

This study provides a broad look at mathematics education research published between 1982 and 1998. The ERIC database was utilized to count and categorize more than 3,000 articles from 48 educational research journals. We identified the number of articles relating to gender, ethnicity, class, and disability that were published in journals from various categories. Attention was also given to grade levels, mathematical topics, and general educational topics in conjunction with each equity group. We conclude that, in comparison with research on ethnicity, class, and disability, research on gender was more prevalent and integrated into mainstream U.S. mathematics education research. Overall, the majority of research seemed to focus on student cognition and outcomes, with less attention to contextual or cultural issues.

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Kristine K. Montis

Dyscalculia is a psychological and medical term that refers to extreme difficulty in learning mathematics and to deficits in the production of accurate, efficient arithmetic calculations, in particular. In this article I report on a yearlong qualitative case study of a 12-year-old student who displayed many characteristics of dyscalculia. The results of the study are discussed as they relate to recent medical and learning-disability research. This student's learning experiences during her school mathematics and tutoring sessions demonstrate the vital role language processes play in the development of the concept flexibility necessary for success in mathematics. Outlined in the closing section are implications of this study for pedagogy in classrooms that include mainstreamed students with learning disabilities.

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H. C. Trimble

General education is herein presented as an avenue which leads to liberal or special education.