representing a different second-language setting. My analysis is based on a view of learning mathematics and language as socialization. I report findings relating to the following research questions: What socialization events are significant in second
In this paper we propose to consider the Project method and the Socialized Recitation from the point of view of their contribution to pedagogy in general and to the teaching of mathematics in particular. It will be necessary, naturally, to define these terms, and in defining them we shall find clues to the aspects of them that constitute their distinctive and valid contributions as well as to those aspects that we consider their short comings.
W. J. Klopp
Much is being written about mathematical objectives to be realized in courses offered in secondary schools and much stress is laid upon the modern trends in mathematical teaching outcomes.
Ralph D. Shamhart
We are living in a world which is incurably mathematical. Everyone knows it. The simplest article of manufacture is subject to the rules of mathematics in production and sale. To list the uses of the subject would be impossible and futile. Yet mathematics has come under criticism as a subject to be taught in om schools.
Howard F. Fehr
The statement that all men are created equal has all too often been interpreted to mean that there is only a sameness to humanity, and hence that all men are to have the same of everything in life, the same worldly goods, the same schooling, the same recreation, the same rights and privileges., the same mathematical education. Of course we know this is nonsense, recognizing that all of us differ in endowed talents, in degrees of performance, and in the types of instruction and schooling we should obtain. We must always remember that the essence of democracy is difference, not sameness, and that our schools must provide for this difference. Yet to preserve our democracy we must share a common heritage, a sameness that unites us as one nation, and we must likewise provide for this sameness in our schools. It is in this light that a mathematics program must be devised for the oncoming generation.
Stephen S. Willoughby
Education has developed differently from other professions in our society. Probably because of its greater importance to society, education was socialized very early in history, while the other professions remained under the free enterprise system. You, as an individual, may believe that it is terribly important that you have excellent medical and legal aid when you need it, but to society it is more important that you have an excellent education. The legal and medical professions will attempt to help you whether your future contribution to society is likely to be positive or negative, but it is the goal of the education profession to help make your contribution to society more positive.
William D. Smith
One of the major trends in elementary and secondary education in America today is the back-to-basics movement. Many advocates of back-to-basics argue for more emphasis on the three Rs, less emphasis on the socializing functions of the school, fewer child-centered curricula, and less social promotion. Accountability is usually closely associated with this movement. Thus, it is natural to find the notion of minimal competency surfacing as an important issue in mathematics education. After all, mathematics is one of the three Rs; and accountability suggests that tudents be able to perform at some minimal level of competency as measured by a proficiency instrument.
Henry S. Jansen
A large group of educators is calling for a complete socialization of the high school program by the use of a core curriculum. This curriculum would take the common experiences of all fields of subject matter and combine them into an “integrated program” in which the pupil would learn by using all knowledge indiscriminately. Most forward looking mathematics teachers agree that we must stop compartmentalizing our mathematics by subjects and years, and proceed to fuse algebra, geometry, trigonometry, and analytics, into a single complete development of the science of number and space. But the core curriculum goes one better and includes not only this, but a fusing of all subjects into one single complete development of knowledge that will function in the life of every individual. Professor Fehr1 feels that mathematics teachers are afraid of this because they are afraid the good ship mathematics may be lost in the process. The educators who are proposing the core curriculum are intelligent people. Let us then be perfectly frank and seek to learn if socialization by the use of the core curriculum is a desirable program in the high school, and if it is, how it can be achieved.
Francis Behn Riggs
Teaching of mathematics in the public schools of this country appears to he based, to a considerable degree, on a belated reaction against earlier American individualism. Accordingly one of the aims of teaching mathematics is to develop thoughtful contributing citizens in a democratic society. To carry out this aim both the content and procedure have been socialized for many years—more recently through the inclusion of war-time material. There is much to be said for this point of view. By using everyday illustrations and problems of a democracy in action, interest and a consequent achievement have pervaded the school rooms, which could never have been reached by the old problem of A and B doing”a piece” of inscrutable work while C pays for it, and D is injected merely to produce the desired academic confusion.
Edited by E. W. Hamilton
A countrywide survey would reveal few if any, teachers who do not profess to be teaching meaningfully a newer version of arithmetic, a better curriculum than was offered to them in 1951 or '41 or '21. Arithmetic has been socialized, objectified, integrated, and professionalized; it has been approached incidentally and accidentally as well as systematically; it has been subjected to diagnostic and detailed research and judged by its social utility as well as its cultural contributions. It has even been the battleground for competing theories of learning. I it any wonder then, that despite all our protestations, our practice tends to be only slightly modified; that many teachers harbor the private conviction that the way they learned it was good enough; and that, if they will just sit tight and keep still, the pendulum will swing back as it does in so many human affairs?