, Selden, & Selden, 2012 ). Teachers often do not know how to support their students’ content-area reading and avoid placing reading expectations on their students (e.g., Fang, 2014 ). The difficulties that students face in learning from textbooks have

### Emilie Wiesner, Aaron Weinberg, Ellie Fitts Fulmer and John Barr

### Marjorie Siegal, Raffaella Borasi and Judith Fonzi

The purpose of this article is to identify specific functions that reading, in combination with writing and talking, can serve in mathematical inquiries and thus to contribute to a better understanding of how inquiry experiences can be planned and supported in mathematics classrooms. This purpose is achieved through an analysis of 3 classroom experiences in which secondary mathematics students engaged in “inquiry cycles” on quite different topics. These instructional experiences were developed by a collaborative team of mathematics teachers, mathematics education researchers, and a reading researcher in the context of action research and teacher research. Analysis of the data led to the identification of 30 functions of reading that are specific to distinct elements of an inquiry cycle. On the basis of these findings we suggest that reading can serve multiple roles in inquiry-based mathematics classes and, in doing so, can afford students unique opportunities for learning mathematics

### Virginia Wattawa

Recent studies show that perhaps about twenty per cent of the failures in ninth year algebra may be attributed to the inability of the students to read their problems so as to understand them. What is not so commonly recognized is that the reading of all mathematics is not only harder than the reading involved in the study of non-mathematical subjects, but perhaps requires a special technique which has not been developed. Consequently children experience more difficulty in reading mathematics than teachers realize, for neither in the English classes nor in the mathematics classes does the average child receive adequate training in this type of reading.

### Rheta N. Rubenstein and Denisse R. Thompson

A tool used in reading theory is adapted to help mathematics teachers ask good questions that help students interpret displays of information.

### George F. Feeman

Teachers of mathematics have long realized that many of the difficulties encountered by students in the learning of mathematics are reading difficulties related to the subject area rather than intrinsic mathematical difficulties.

### Frances B. Morgenstern and Morris Pincus

On several occasions the writers of this article have noted the difficulties that children encounter in reading large numbers. When confronted with a number beyond the order of magnitude of thousands, children begin to produce such strange combinations as *thousand hundreds, ten hundred thousands*, and even *million hundreds*; thereby revealing the lack of any organizing principle. For many children, there seems to be no recognition that there is a pattern within large numbers that provides a key to understanding and reading the numbers.

### Lucien T. Hall JR.

Measurement is a basic skill in mathematics education. It involves the ability to read a graduated scale. Teaching students to read graduated scales is probably an overlooked or taken-for-granted part of instruction. Since so many different instruments exist and each has its own individualized graduated scale, it is necessary to teach students the *process* for reading those points on a graduated scale that are not numerically marked.

### George W. Streby

Sometimes the teacher thinks that the students cannot work verbal problems because they do not have the ability to read. This is a vague statement because the act of reading is very complex, involving many skills and understandings. What docs the teacher mean when he says the student cannot read? Does this mean that the student cannot pronounce well, does not read smoothly, does not understand the concepts, or does not understand the technical words used in the problem? Stating that a student cannot read is making use of the catch-all word that may mean any number of things.

### Kyle T. Schultz

A mathematical proof inspired by a mind–reading trick found online can ready algebra students for more rigorous thinking.

### Gregory Beaudine

If teachers have a deeper comprehension of their students' reading ability, it may lead to students' improved literacy and understanding of the subject.