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Heather West, Emily Elrod, Karen Hollebrands, and Valerie Faulkner

to the practice of preservice teacher education ( n = 25) rather than in-service teacher education or in-service professional development ( n = 15). To continue to build the knowledge base for mathematics teacher educators, our editorial team

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Mary Alice Carlson, Ruth Heaton and Molly Williams

In recent years, teacher noticing of children's mathematical thinking has emerged as an important and generative construct in mathematics education (Sherin, Jacobs, & Philipp, 2011). Less is known about ways instructional leaders notice teachers' learning. Between 2011 and 2015, we facilitated professional development (PD) in which coaches, principals, and teachers studied mathematics teaching and learning together. Our initial focus on teacher decision-making was inadequate in meeting instructional leaders' learning needs. We adapted the PD to focus instructional leaders' attention on the work of learning teaching. Analysis of leaders' discourse revealed shifts from noticing teacher characteristics to noticing dilemmas and decision-making within teaching and coaching. Findings suggest new roles for teacher educators and new forms of PD for instructional leaders.

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Laura B. Sample McMeeking, Rebecca Orsi and R. Brian Cobb

The effect of a 15- to 24-month in-service professional development (PD) program on state accountability mathematics test scores for middle school students was examined using a quasi-experimental design. Middle level mathematics teachers (n = 128) from 7 school districts and 64 middle schools volunteered for a PD sequence of content-oriented summer courses and pedagogy-oriented structured follow-up experiences during the subsequent academic year. Student effects of the PD program were measured using Colorado's state mathematics test results for 2 cohorts of students: 1 that received mathematics instruction from participant teachers in the year prior to the PD and another cohort that received mathematics instruction in the year following the PD. The odds of a student achieving a Proficient or Advanced score on the state test were then compared between cohorts. Results showed that students' odds of achieving a score of Proficient or better increased with teacher participation in the PD program.

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Gina Post and Stephanie Varoz

Supporters of the current reform efforts in mathematics envision ways of teaching that engage students in meaningful tasks and create communities where students can discuss and reflect on their learning. Becoming such a teacher requires learning new pedagogical strategies, knowing how children learn, and reflecting on one's own understanding of mathematical knowledge and practice. As both prospective and practicing teachers participate in a variety of learning experiences, they revise their conceptions of mathematics instruction and develop new forms of practice. Two predominant contexts for teacher learning are preservice teacher education programs and in-service professional development opportunities. However, research demonstrates that both contexts face distinct problems for developing reform-oriented practices (Borko and Putnam 1996). Prospective teachers exposed to reform-oriented pedagogy by university faculty in teacher education programs often discover that teaching practices in student field placements remain extremely traditional and authoritarian (Borko et al. 1992). This failure to provide field experiences that model standards-based practices often encourages traditional teaching routines (Eisenhart et al. 1993; McNamara 1995).

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Geoff Krall

the dates here and there, if they are on the calendar, they are less likely to get subverted by other calendar-filling tasks. For mathematics departments with a day or even half-days of in-service professional development at the beginning of the year

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Kelly Hagan and Cheng-Yao Lin

mathematics, preservice and in-service professional development for mathematics teachers, problem solving, and the impact of technology on mathematics content and pedagogy.

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Kelly Hagan and Cheng-Yao Lin

professor of mathematics education at Southern Illinois University in Carbondale. His research interests include the teaching and learning of mathematics, preservice and in-service professional development for mathematics teachers, problem solving, and the

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Kelly Hagan and Cheng-Yao Lin

include the teaching and learning of mathematics, preservice and in-service professional development for mathematics teachers, problem solving, and the impact of technology on mathematics content and pedagogy.