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Estrella Johnson, Christine Andrews-Larson, Karen Keene, Kathleen Melhuish, Rachel Keller and Nicholas Fortune

drastic and more consistent across genders for students in classes that featured a specific form of active learning, Inquiry Based Learning (IBL). As such, Laursen et al. (2014) presented evidence that IBL “levels the playing field” (p. 415) for women

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Margaret Walshaw

This article, the focus of which is on girls in mathematics, engages poststructural debates over knowledge and power to explore how female subjectivity is lived within the classroom, and the first section looks at some recent feminist reconstructionists' proposals developed from the idea of “different experience.” The second section is set within the context of the poststructuralists' undermining of the “light” of progressive development, central to the Enlightenment project. Foucauldian ideas are introduced for a theoretical discussion about the ways in which the girl becomes gendered through available discourses and practices. Building on this discussion, the third section provides an analysis of some moments of classroom life and offers a different story about girls in school mathematics.

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NCTM's Editorial Panel on Multiculturalism and Gender in Mathematics has issued a call for manuscripts for a series of books to be titled Changing the Faces of Mathematics. The series will be edited by Walter G. Secada. The following titles are proposed for the six volumes in the series.

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NCTM's Editorial Panel on Multiculturalism and Gender in Mathematics has issued a call for manuscripts for a series of books to be titled Changing the Faces of Mathematics. The series will be edited by Walter G. Secada. The following titles are proposed for the six volumes in the series.

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NCTM’s Editorial Panel on Multiculturalism and Gender in Mathematic has issued a call for manu scripts for a series of books to be titled Changing the Faces of Mathematics. The series will be edited by Walter G. Secada. The following titles are proposed for the six volumes in the series.

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NCTM's Editorial Panel on Multiculturalism and Gender in Mathematics has issued a call for manuscripts for a series of books to be titled Changing the Faces of Mathematics. The series will be edited by Walter G. Secada. The following titles are proposed for the six volumes in the series.

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Laurie H. Rubel

Expand the focus on diversity and equity to discuss the importance of gender and sexual identity for mathematics education.

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Linda Levi

Gender equity in mathematics education is a complex issue. Although males and females take similar mathematics classes and achieve similar scores on standardized tests throughout the K–12 school years (Kimball 1989; National Science Board 1998), males' participation in mathematics after high school is far greater than females' (National Science Board 1998). Many educators are studying the K–12 school experience in an attempt to understand gender differences in mathematics participation. For example, as we make advancements in assessing children's thinking, we are starting to find gender differences in young children's mathematics achievement. In a large study of first through third graders, in which individual interviews were used to assess children's thinking, researchers found gender differences in children's solution strategies (Fennema et al. 1998). Other researchers are asking teachers what information they can offer to advance our understanding of gender equity in mathematics.

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Michael T. Battista

The balance between visual-spatial and verbal-logical thought may determine “mathematical casts of mind” that influence how an individual processes mathematical information. Thus, to investigate the role that spatial thinking plays in learning, problem solving, and gender differences in high school geometry, spatial thought was examined along with its counterpart verbal-logical thought. The results suggest that whereas males and females differed in spatial visualization and in their performance in high school geometry, they did not differ in logical reasoning ability or in their use of geometric problem-solving strategies. There was evidence of gender differences in profiles of those mental abilities that are important for geometry performance and of a teacher-by-gender interaction on geometry achievement.

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Corinna A. Ethington

Gender-related differences on measures of quantitative performance and problem-solving abilities consistently appear in national assessments (e.g., Dossey, Mullis, Lindquist, & Chambers, 1988; Fennema & Carpenter, 1981; National Assessment of Educational Progress, 1975, 1983; Wilson, 1972). Using a variety of performance measures, investigators have examined the nature of these differences and the factors associated with them for subjects varying in age from elementary school to undergraduates in college. From these studies, it is generally concluded that no gender differences are evidenced at the elementary school level, but beginning at approximately the seventh grade, any differences that appear, such as those found in spatial problem-solving tasks and tasks requiring mathematical reasoning, favor males. (See Fennema, 1974, 1980 and Leder, 1985, for a review of this literature.)