This article explores the ways in which a teacher educator uses digital technology to create a virtual field placement as a way to blur the boundaries between a university methods course and teacher candidates' field placements. After describing his goals for the course, the teacher educator provides a description of three LessonSketch experiences his teacher candidates complete in this virtual field placement site and how these experiences create opportunities for teacher candidates to learn to teach mathematics. The design process and choices of these virtual field placement experiences are explored via interviews with the first author. Reflecting on these LessonSketch experiences, all of the authors then explore affordances of virtual and hybrid placements as resources for supplementing real placements and bridging theory/practice divides in teacher education.
Joel Amidon, Daniel Chazan, Dana Grosser-Clarkson and Elizabeth Fleming
Gina Post and Stephanie Varoz
Supporters of the current reform efforts in mathematics envision ways of teaching that engage students in meaningful tasks and create communities where students can discuss and reflect on their learning. Becoming such a teacher requires learning new pedagogical strategies, knowing how children learn, and reflecting on one's own understanding of mathematical knowledge and practice. As both prospective and practicing teachers participate in a variety of learning experiences, they revise their conceptions of mathematics instruction and develop new forms of practice. Two predominant contexts for teacher learning are preservice teacher education programs and in-service professional development opportunities. However, research demonstrates that both contexts face distinct problems for developing reform-oriented practices (Borko and Putnam 1996). Prospective teachers exposed to reform-oriented pedagogy by university faculty in teacher education programs often discover that teaching practices in student field placements remain extremely traditional and authoritarian (Borko et al. 1992). This failure to provide field experiences that model standards-based practices often encourages traditional teaching routines (Eisenhart et al. 1993; McNamara 1995).
) rehearsals, discussions, and assessments, and (c) analysis of teaching and learning in field placements (e.g., Baldinger, Selling, & Virmani, 2016 ). The participants were taught to facilitate productive discourse as the engine for learning, which required
Carlos Nicolas Gomez and AnnaMarie Conner
. (2012) , Swars et al. (2007, 2009 ), Utley et al. (2005) , and Vacc and Bright (1999) 16 Specific activity A specific activity or task (e.g., observations during field placement and pedagogical activity) is described as the catalyst for