Equity in mathematics classroom discourse is a pressing concern, but analyzing issues of equity using observational tools remains a challenge. In this article, we propose equity analytics as a quantitative approach to analyzing aspects of equity and inequity in classrooms. We introduce a classroom observation tool that focuses on relatively low-inference dimensions of classroom discourse, which are cross-tabulated with demographic markers (e.g., gender, race) to identify patterns of more and less equitable participation within and across lessons. We argue that equity analytics can support researchers and practitioners in identifying subtle patterns of inequity in classroom discourse. As we show, even in classrooms with highly experienced, equityminded teachers, subtle inequities can emerge that are detectable through this quantitative methodology. To conclude, we discuss how equity analytics can complement qualitative approaches in the study of equity and inequity in classrooms.
Daniel L. Reinholz and Niral Shah
Nicole L. Louie
In this article, I investigate the influence of the dominant culture characterizing mathematics education—which I term the culture of exclusion—on efforts to teach for equity. Analyzing a year of observations in an urban high school mathematics department, I found that this culture structured everyday instruction even for teachers who expressed strong commitment to equity and who participated in ongoing equityoriented professional development. Through their classroom practice, the 4 focal teachers in this study often framed mathematics as a fixed body of knowledge to be received, and they positioned students as deficient, unintentionally excluding many students from rich learning opportunities. However, these teachers also asserted alternatives to the culture of exclusion, showing how resistance to this culture might take shape in everyday mathematics instruction.
Creso Franco, Paola Sztajn and Maria Isabel Ramalho Ortigão
In this article, we use data from a large-scale Brazilian national assessment to discuss the relation between reform teaching and equity in mathematics education. We study the dimensionality of teaching style to better qualify what reform teaching means. We then use hierarchical linear models to explore whether reform teaching is associated with student achievement in mathematics and with student socioeconomic status (SES). Our results indicate that reform and traditional teaching are not opposite sides of a one-dimensional axis. They also emphasize both that reform teaching is related to higher school average achievement in mathematics and that the dissemination of reform teaching contributes to minimize the achievement gap between students who attend schools with low average SES and students who attend schools with high average SES. However, our results also show that reform is associated with an increase in within-school inequality in the social distribution of achievement.
Filiberto Barajas-López and Gregory V. Larnell
In their commentary, “Toward a Framework for Research Linking Equitable Teaching with the Standards for Mathematical Practice,” Bartell et al. (2017) provide a stepping-stone into the challenge of clarifying the interface between equity and standards setting in mathematics education by devising a framework that relates the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics to an explicit articulation of equitable teaching practices. In this commentary, we respond to this proposed framework and aim to clarify some key elements. Furthermore, we draw on our own positionings and scholarly interests to critique and bolster the framework by focusing on the tensions related to co-opting the Common Core for equity-oriented purposes, the framework's relationship to neoliberalism, and the role of racialized rhetoric and nondominant family and community knowledge.
A listing is given of current online offerings for Equity in Mathematics Education, the special issue of JRME that explores the subject of equity.
The JRME Special Issue, titled Equity in Mathematics Education, is currently online. It can be accessed at www.nctm.org/jrme/equity.
Kristen N. Bieda and Megan Staples
not a stance or an ideology. Equity is a fundamental guiding principle for school mathematics teaching: The question is not whether all students can succeed in mathematics but whether the adults organizing mathematics learning opportunities can alter
B. Ross Taylor
In recent years, underrepresentation in enrollments in mathematics courses by females and minorities has started to receive considerable attention. For example, in 1979 NCTM established a task force on “Problems in the Mathematics Education of Girls and Young Women.” NCTM also received a grant from the National Science Foundation to conduct a series of conferences on equity issues in 1982 and 1983. In view of the increasing importance of mathematics for keeping student options open for higher education and careers, this attention to equity issues is timely.
The Educational Materials Committee (EMC) invites articles for the 1997 Yearbook. The working title of this yearbook is Multicultural and Gender Equity in the Mathematics Classroom: The Gift of Diversity. Janet Trentacosta, mathematics specialist in the San Diego Unified School District, is the issue editor.
JRME Equity Special Issue Editorial Panel
Beatriz D'Ambrosio, Marilyn Frankenstein, Rochelle Gutiérrez, Signe Kastberg, Danny Bernard Martin, Judit Moschkovich, Edd Taylor and David Barnes
This article provides an introduction to the JRME Equity Special Issue. It includes a rationale for the special issue, the process for selecting articles, and a description of the kinds of articles that will appear in the special issue. It concludes with a set of questions that teachers and researchers can and should ponder as they read the articles in the special issue.