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Kristine K. Montis

Dyscalculia is a psychological and medical term that refers to extreme difficulty in learning mathematics and to deficits in the production of accurate, efficient arithmetic calculations, in particular. In this article I report on a yearlong qualitative case study of a 12-year-old student who displayed many characteristics of dyscalculia. The results of the study are discussed as they relate to recent medical and learning-disability research. This student's learning experiences during her school mathematics and tutoring sessions demonstrate the vital role language processes play in the development of the concept flexibility necessary for success in mathematics. Outlined in the closing section are implications of this study for pedagogy in classrooms that include mainstreamed students with learning disabilities.

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Paul F. Flinter

One of a child's finest attainments in his learning experience is the concept of number—ideas of quantity, weight, time. operation, numerical classification and problem solving. These principles begin early and develop as the individual grows. According to Gessell and Amatruda (1947) generalizations are made as early as in the first year with manipulations of various objects. Piaget (1953) observed acquisition of number concepts through a series of sequential levels depending upon the individual's readiness. A majority of children will acquire understanding of number and will encounter little difficulty. However, some will fail because of language disorders, faulty teaching methods, reading problems, or disturbances of qualitative thinking (Johnson and Myklebust 1967).

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Katherine E. Lewis and Marie B. Fisher

Although approximately 5–8% of students have a mathematical learning disability (MLD), researchers have yet to develop a consensus operational definition. To examine how MLD has been identified and what mathematics topics have been explored, we conducted a systematic review of 164 studies on MLD published between 1974 and 2013. Findings indicate that (a) there was great variability in the classification methods used, (b) studies rarely reported demographic differences between the MLD and typically achieving groups, and (c) studies overwhelmingly focused on elementary–aged students engaged in basic arithmetic calculation. To move the field toward a more precise and shared definition of MLD, we argue for standards for methodology and reporting, and we identify a need for research addressing more complex mathematics.

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Katherine E. Lewis

Mathematical learning disability (MLD) research often conflates low achievement with disabilities and focuses exclusively on deficits of students with MLDs. In this study, the author adopts an alternative approach using a response-to-intervention MLD classification model to identify the resources students draw on rather than the skills they lack. Detailed diagnostic analyses of the sessions revealed that the students understood mathematical representations in atypical ways and that this directly contributed to the persistent difficulties they experienced. Implications for screening and remediation approaches are discussed.

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Jessica Hunt and Juanita Silva

. Hedegaard , & U. J. Jensen (Eds.), Activity theory and social practice: Cultural-historical approaches (pp. 225 – 234 ). Aarhus University Press . 4. Butterworth , B. , Varma , S. , & Laurillard , D. ( 2011 ). Dyscalculia