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Valerie N. Faulkner, Lee V. Stiff, Patricia L. Marshall, John Nietfeld and Cathy L. Crossland

This study is a longitudinal look at the different mathematics placement profiles of Black students and White students from late elementary school through 8th grade. Results revealed that Black students had reduced odds of being placed in algebra by the time they entered 8th grade even after controlling for performance in mathematics. An important implication of this study is that placement recommendations must be monitored to ensure that high-achieving students are placed appropriately, regardless of racial background.

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Bethany A. Noblitt and Brooke E. Buckley

Participants race across a university campus, completing challenging mathematical tasks that correspond to NCTM's Standards.

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Barry L. Kurtz

Race To is a variation of the ancient game of Nim. One player designates an eligible set of whole numbers {1, 2, …, N} and a goal number (usually much larger than N). The other player starts either by calling out an eligible number or by declining to begin. The game sta rts at 0 and the first player selects one eligible number and adds it to 0. Then the second player selects an eligible number and adds it to the previous total. The player to add a number that brings the total to the goal number is the winner. A winning strategy exists for the player who allows his opponent to select the eligible numbers and the goal number.

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Danny Bernard Martin

Critical scholars have argued that mathematics education is in danger of becoming increasingly influenced by and aligned with neoliberal and neoconservative market-focused projects. Although this larger argument is powerful, there are often 2 peculiar responses to issues of race and racism within these analyses. These responses are characterized by what the author sees as an unfortunate backgrounding of these issues in some analyses or a conceptually flawed foregrounding in others. These responses obscure the evidence that, beyond being aligned with the market-oriented goals of these projects, mathematics education has also been aligned with their prevailing racial agendas.

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Amy Noelle Parks and Mardi Schmeichel

This Research Commentary builds on a 2-stage literature review to argue that there are 4 obstacles to making a sociopolitical turn in mathematics education that would allow researchers to talk about race and ethnicity in ways that take both identity and power seriously: (a) the marginalization of discussions of race and ethnicity; (b) the reiteration of race and ethnicity as independent variables; (c) absence of race and ethnicity from mathematics education research; and (d) the minimizing of discussions of race and ethnicity, even within equity-oriented work.

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Daniel L. Reinholz and Niral Shah

Equity in mathematics classroom discourse is a pressing concern, but analyzing issues of equity using observational tools remains a challenge. In this article, we propose equity analytics as a quantitative approach to analyzing aspects of equity and inequity in classrooms. We introduce a classroom observation tool that focuses on relatively low-inference dimensions of classroom discourse, which are cross-tabulated with demographic markers (e.g., gender, race) to identify patterns of more and less equitable participation within and across lessons. We argue that equity analytics can support researchers and practitioners in identifying subtle patterns of inequity in classroom discourse. As we show, even in classrooms with highly experienced, equityminded teachers, subtle inequities can emerge that are detectable through this quantitative methodology. To conclude, we discuss how equity analytics can complement qualitative approaches in the study of equity and inequity in classrooms.

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Christopher C. Jett

The stories of high-achieving African American mathematics students are gaining prominence in the research literature. In this multiple case study, I use a critical race theoretical frame to document and analyze the experiences of 4 mathematically persistent African American male students who earned undergraduate degrees in mathematics and subsequently enrolled in mathematics or mathematics education graduate programs. The findings reveal that these African American men drew from internal factors to influence their mathematical persistence and identified how racial microaggressions manifest themselves in postundergraduate contexts. Recommendations for practice, policy implications, and future research directions that emerged from this study are discussed to better understand African American men's mathematics experiences.

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William F. Tate

The purpose of this article is to document changes in U.S. mathematics achievement by reviewing national trend studies, college admissions examinations, and Advanced Placement tests. This article examined this quantitative research literature to determine trends in mathematics achievement of various social groups defined along lines of race, class, gender, ethnicity, and language proficiency. The findings of this review indicate that over the last 15 years all demographic groups have improved in mathematics achievement—specifically, in basic skills. Moreover, the mathematics achievement gap is slowly closing between White students and students of color on assessments of basic skills. Males tended to outperform females on standardized measures; however, gender differences were small and generally not significant. Consistent with past reviews of mathematics achievement, course taking was a powerful variable, often resulting in similar achievement gains across diverse groups. This finding has serious implications for equity-related policy. The article concludes with two other recommendations: the need for fiscal and cultural policy to support standards-based reform.

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Rebecca McGraw, Sarah Thuele Lubienski and Marilyn E. Strutchens

In this article we describe gender gaps in mathematics achievement and attitude as measured by the U.S. National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) from 1990 to 2003. Analyzing relationships among achievement and mathematical content, student proficiency and percentile levels, race, and socioeconomic status (SES), we found that gender gaps favoring males (1) were generally small but had not diminished across reporting years, (2) were largest in the areas of measurement, number and operations (in Grades 8 and 12) and geometry (in Grade 12), (3) tended to be concentrated at the upper end of the score distributions, and (4) were most consistent for White, high-SES students and non-existent for Black students. In addition, we found that female students' attitudes and self-concepts related to mathematics continued to be more negative than those of male students.

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Steven Greenstein and Justin Seventko

Students' novel strategies are a valuable resource for mathematical sense making in the classroom. Deliberate exploration of different strategies can support and extend students' mathematical understandings. Postscript items are designed as rich grab-and-go resources that any teacher can quickly incorporate into his or her classroom repertoire with little effort and maximum impact.