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structures and practices in mathematics education provide an inequitable “culture of exclusion” that privileges some children at the expense of other children ( Louie 2017 ). Disparities in learning opportunities based on race, class, language, gender, and

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Estrella Johnson, Christine Andrews-Larson, Karen Keene, Kathleen Melhuish, Rachel Keller and Nicholas Fortune

, research indicates that during facilitated whole-class discussions in math classrooms, students often receive qualitatively and quantitatively different opportunities to participate in ways that follow patterns of gender, race, and class ( Black, 2004

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Randall E. Groth, Jennifer A. Bergner, Jathan W. Austin, Claudia R. Burgess and Veera Holdai

, we try to create microcosms of typical classrooms by maximizing diversity along the dimensions of race, gender, and schooling experiences to the extent possible when reading parent applications to select the children who will participate. Each pair

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. For example, the student drawing (see figure 4.1 ) is reflective of the class’s reading of Hidden Figures: The True Story of Four Black Women and the Space Race ( Shetterly and Conkling 2018 ). The drawing illustrates the empowering messages the

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mathematical statement. Children may offer, “Marcus tossed 9 coins in the air, 3 of them landed showing heads. How many landed showing tails?” or “Four members of a cross-country relay team each run the same distance to complete their part of the race. The

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establishing norms for classroom participation, positioning students as capable, attending explicitly to race and culture, and pressing for academic success (for more, see Bartell et al. 2017 ), more students have access to the mathematics. Further, the eight

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Lara Alcock, Paul Hernandez-Martinez, Arun Godwin Patel and David Sirl

meanings. 8 All reported QAP correlations in this paper used 10,000 permutations. 9 Note that, according to McPherson et al. (2001) , “race and ethnicity creates the strongest divides in our personal environments, with age, religion, education

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Randall E. Groth, Jennifer A. Bergner and Jathan W. Austin

goal of maximizing diversity along the dimensions of race, gender, and schooling experiences so as to work toward the goals of accessible and equitable mathematics instruction for all students ( NCTM, 2014 ). Specifically, in choosing from the applicant

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Richard Barwell

arithmetic problem solving in Hispanic first graders. Elementary School Journal , 92 ( 2 ), 213 – 231 . doi: 10.1086/461689 51. Secada , W. G. ( 1992 ). Race, ethnicity, social class, language, and achievement in mathematics