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Craig Swinyard and Sean Larsen

The purpose of this article is to elaborate Cottrill et al.'s (1996) conceptual framework of limit, an explanatory model of how students might come to understand the limit concept. Drawing on a retrospective analysis of 2 teaching experiments, we propose 2 theoretical constructs to account for the students' success in formulating and understanding a definition of limit. The 1st construct relates to the need for students to move away from their tendency to attend first to the input variable of the function. The 2nd construct relates to the need for students to overcome the practical impossibility of completing an infinite process. Together, these 2 theoretical constructs build on Cottrill et al.'s work, resulting in a revised conceptual framework of limit.

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Marilyn Carlson, Sally Jacobs, Edward Coe, Sean Larsen and Eric Hsu

The article develops the notion of covariational reasoning and proposes a framework for describing the mental actions involved in applying covariational reasoning when interpreting and representing dynamic function events. It also reports on an investigation of high-performing 2nd-semester calculus students' ability to reason about covarying quantities in dynamic situations. The study revealed that these students were able to construct images of a function's dependent variable changing in tandem with the imagined change of the independent variable, and in some situations, were able to construct images of rate of change for contiguous intervals of a function's domain. However, students appeared to have difficulty forming images of continuously changing rate and could not accurately represent or interpret inflection points or increasing and decreasing rate for dynamic function situations. These findings suggest that curriculum and instruction should place increased emphasis on moving students from a coordinated image of two variables changing in tandem to a coordinated image of the instantaneous rate of change with continuous changes in the independent variable for dynamic function situations.

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Chris Rasmussen, Naneh Apkarian, Jessica Ellis Hagman, Estrella Johnson, Sean Larsen, David Bressoud and The Progress through Calculus Team

We present findings from a recently completed census survey of all mathematics departments in the United States that offer a graduate degree in mathematics. The census survey is part of a larger project investigating institutional features that influence student success in the introductory mathematics courses that are required of most STEM majors in the United States. We report the viewpoints of departments about characteristics shown to support students' success as well as the extent to which these characteristics are being implemented in programs across the country. We conclude with a discussion of areas where we see the potential for growth and further improvement.