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Richard Kitchen and Sarabeth Berk

The implementation of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (National Governors Association Center for Best Practices & Council of Chief State School Officers, 2010) has the potential to move forward key features of standards-based reforms in mathematics that have been promoted in the United States for more than 2 decades (e.g., National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 1989, 2000; National Science Foundation, 1996). We believe that this is an especially opportune time to purposely focus on improving the mathematics education of students who have historically been denied access to a high-quality and rigorous mathematics education in the United States, specifically low-income students and students of color (e.g., Kitchen, DePree, Celedón-Pattichis, & Brinkerhoff, 2007; Leonard & Martin, 2013). We discuss a challenge to realizing standards-based reforms in mathematics in the United States: computer-based interventions in mathematics classrooms.

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Richard Kitchen and Sarabeth Berk

In our response to Clements and Sarama (2017), we address the 5 issues that they identify as criticisms of our Research Commentary (Kitchen & Berk, 2016). As in our original commentary, we highlight concerns we have regarding the delivery of CAI programs and potential misuses of CAI, particularly at Title I schools that largely serve historically marginalized student groups. Specifically, we concentrate on how CAI may contribute to underserved students generally experiencing mathematics in impoverished ways that do not align with reforms being advocated by the mathematics education community. We also argue that Clements and Sarama appear to dismiss or ignore our central argument that some CAI programs are not designed or are not being used to support the development of students' mathematical reasoning and fluency.