That teacher was discussing the challenges associated with initiating mathematical discourse with his Navajo students. Although he is interested in developing a classroom in which students regularly share their mathematical thinking with one another, such a discursive classroom may in fact be incongruent with the students' culture. This example demonstrates one of many issues that impede secondary-level mathematics teachers in their efforts to negotiate toward a classroom in which students' ideas are valued and frequently solicited.
Richard S. Kitchen
A project developed for students in grades 9—12 that uses real–world statistical data presented in the print media. The activities take advantage of the variety of statistical representations found in newspapers.
Richard Kitchen and Sarabeth Berk
The implementation of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (National Governors Association Center for Best Practices & Council of Chief State School Officers, 2010) has the potential to move forward key features of standards-based reforms in mathematics that have been promoted in the United States for more than 2 decades (e.g., National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 1989, 2000; National Science Foundation, 1996). We believe that this is an especially opportune time to purposely focus on improving the mathematics education of students who have historically been denied access to a high-quality and rigorous mathematics education in the United States, specifically low-income students and students of color (e.g., Kitchen, DePree, Celedón-Pattichis, & Brinkerhoff, 2007; Leonard & Martin, 2013). We discuss a challenge to realizing standards-based reforms in mathematics in the United States: computer-based interventions in mathematics classrooms.
Richard Kitchen and Sarabeth Berk
In our response to Clements and Sarama (2017), we address the 5 issues that they identify as criticisms of our Research Commentary (Kitchen & Berk, 2016). As in our original commentary, we highlight concerns we have regarding the delivery of CAI programs and potential misuses of CAI, particularly at Title I schools that largely serve historically marginalized student groups. Specifically, we concentrate on how CAI may contribute to underserved students generally experiencing mathematics in impoverished ways that do not align with reforms being advocated by the mathematics education community. We also argue that Clements and Sarama appear to dismiss or ignore our central argument that some CAI programs are not designed or are not being used to support the development of students' mathematical reasoning and fluency.
Richard S. Kitchen and Linda Wilson
“Joey, can you tell me what you were thinking when you were looking at the diagram?” “It looks like the keel of a boat.”
Ethnomathematics: Challenging Eurocentrism in Mathematics Education
Richard S. Kitchen and Joanne Rossi Becker
Arthur B. Powell and Marilyn Frankenstein's new book, Ethnomathematics: Challenging Eurocentrism in Mathematics Education, illuminates for our consideration a body of very practical mathematical knowledge largely discounted in the traditional mathematical community when compared with the abstract, theoretical mathematical knowledge typically valued highly by mathematicians. Ethnomathematics has caused us to call into question which mathematical knowledge really counts and thus has come to signify more than just “the study of mathematical ideas of nonliterate peoples” (a definition first offered by Marcia and Robert Ascher in the early 1980s in their paper, “Ethnomathematics,” reprinted as chapter 2 of this volume, p. 26). Editors Powell and Frankenstein use, instead, the broader definition of ethnomathematics provided in the book's opening chapter, “Ethnomathematics and Its Place in the History and Pedagogy of Mathematics,” by Ubiratan D'Ambrosio, a Brazilian mathematics educator whom many consider the intellectual progenitor of ethnomathematics. D'Ambrosio defines ethnomathematics as the mathematics that all cultural groups engage in, including “national tribal societies, labor groups, children of a certain age bracket, professional classes, and so on” (p. 16). Each group, including mathematicians, has its own mathematics. From D'Ambrosio's perspective, ethnomathematics exists at the confluence of the history of mathematics and cultural anthropology, overcoming the Egyptian/Greek differentiation between practical and academic mathematics.
Richard Kitchen, April Cherrington, Joanne Gates, Judith Hitchings, Maria Majka, Michael Merk and George Trubow
According to reform documents, results from performance assessment tasks give teachers immediate feedback about students' mathematical strengths and weaknesses (NCTM 1995). However, little research has been done to demonstrate just how teachers take advantage of this feedback. Furthermore, less is known about how teachers benefit from collaboratively writing, revising, implementing, and scoring performance tasks.