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Gerhard Sonnert, Melissa D. Barnett and Philip M. Sadler

Students’ attitudes toward mathematics and the strength of their mathematics preparation typically go hand in hand such that their specific effects are difficult to disentangle. Employing the method of propensity weighting of a continuous variable, we built hierarchical linear models in which mathematics attitudes and preparation are uncorrelated. Data used came from a national survey of U.S. college students taking introductory calculus (N = 5,676). A 1-standard-deviation increase in mathematics preparation predicted a 4.72-point higher college calculus grade, whereas a 1-­standard-deviation increase in mathematics attitudes resulted in a 3.15-point gain. Thus, the effect of mathematics preparation was about 1.5 times that of mathematics attitudes. The two variables did not interact, nor was there any interaction between gender and these variables.

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Edited by Margaret Holland, Henry S. Kepner Jr., Charles J. Zoet, Margariete Montague Wheeler, Alexander Tobin, Edward C. Beardslee, Thomas J. Brieske, Philip Peak, Paul M. Sadler and Loretta M. Taylor

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Edited by Margaret Holland, Henry S. Kepner Jr., Charles J. Zoet, Margariete Montague Wheeler, Alexander Tobin, Edward C. Beardslee, Thomas J. Brieske, Philip Peak, Paul M. Sadler and Loretta M. Taylor

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Edited by Margaret Holland, Henry S. Kepner Jr., Charles J. Zoet, Margariete Montague Wheeler, Edward C. Beardslee, Thomas J. Brieske, Philip Peak, Paul M. Sadler and Loretta M. Taylor

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Edited by Margaret Holland, Henry S. Kepner Jr., Charles J. Zoet, Margariete Montague Wheeler, Alexander Tobin, Edward C. Beardslee, Ada Booth, Thomas J. Brieske, Alexandra Forsythe, Philip Peak, Paul M. Sadler, Richard C. Spangler and Loretta M. Taylor

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Edited by Margaret Holland, Henry S. Kepner Jr., Charles J. Zoet, Margariete Montague Wheeler, Alexander Tobin, Edward C. Beardslee, Ada Booth, Thomas J. Brieske, Alexandra Forsythe, Philip Peak, Paul M. Sadler, Richard C. Spangler and Loretta M. Taylor

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Edited by Margaret Holland, Henry S. Kepner Jr., Charles J. Zoet, Margariete Montague Wheeler, Alexander Tobin, Edward C. Beardslee, Ada Booth, Thomas J. Brieske, Alexandra Forsythe, Philip Peak, Paul M. Sadler, Richard C. Spangler and Loretta M. Taylor

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Edited by Margaret Holland, Lowell Leake Jr., Thomas E. Rowan, Albert P. Shulte, Margariete Montague Wheeler, Mary Margaret Odom, Alexander Tobin, Edward C. Beardslee, Thomas J. Brieske, Alexandra Forsythe, George Green, Philip Peak, Paul M. Sadler, Richard Seavey, Richard C. Spangler and Loretta M. Taylor

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Edited by Margaret Holland, Lowell Leake Jr., Thomas E. Rowan, Albert P. Shulte, Margariete Montague Wheeler, Mary Margaret Odom, Alexander Tobin, Edward C. Beardslee, Ada Booth, Thomas J. Brieske, Alexandra Forsythe, George Green, Philip Peak, Paul M. Sadler, Richard Seavey, Richard C. Spangler and Loretta M. Taylor

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Edited by Margaret Holland, Lowell Leake Jr., Albert P. Shulte, Margariete Montague Wheeler, Mary Margaret Odom, Alexander Tobin, Edward C. Beardslee, Ada Booth, Thomas J. Brieske, Alexandra Forsythe, Philip Peak, Paul M. Sadler, Richard Seavey, Richard C. Spangler and Loretta M. Taylor