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Kathy Liu Sun

Share news about happenings in the field of elementary school mathematics education, views on matters pertaining to teaching and learning mathematics in the early childhood or elementary school years, and reactions to previously published opinion pieces or articles. Find detailed department submission guidelines at http:/www.nctm.org/WriteForTCM.

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Kathy Liu Sun

The belief that mathematics ability is a fixed trait is particularly common and may be a key reason for many students' disinterest and underperformance in mathematics. This study investigates how mathematics teaching practices might contribute to students' beliefs about mathematics ability being a fixed or malleable trait (mindset). Through a synthesis of existing literature and an analysis of data from classroom observations, this article presents a framework of teaching practices and identifies how varying implementations of these practices can be classified along a continuum from conveying fixed-mindset messages to conveying growth-mindset messages related to mathematics ability.