Teachers' use of appropriate questioning strategies illustrates the interplay between language and math as English Language Learners describe their understanding of measurement in one-on-one interviews.
Anthony Fernandes, Cynthia O. Anhalt and Marta Civil
Mathew D. Felton, Cynthia O. Anhalt and Ricardo Cortez
Future middle school teachers tested the waters of modeling in the classroom with a bath versus shower water conservation problem.
Cynthia O. Anhalt, Matthew Ondrus and Virginia Horak
A fundamental concern in mathematics education is to understand the connection between the mathematics and the students who are trying to learn the mathematics. Even under ordinary conditions, it may be difficult for teachers to completely understand the challenges that students face. This can be especially true for teachers of English language learners (ELL). Given the steadily increasing population of U.S. students who are classified as limited in English proficiency, it is imperative that teachers understand the perspective of an ELL student in an English-speaking classroom. Meaningful professional development can further this type of understanding. In this article, we describe a professional development experience in which twenty-two teachers from schools with large Latino student populations participated in two mathematics lessons taught in Chinese. The goal for the activity was to allow the teachers to experience challenges similar to those that many students face. Thus, in addition to describing the mathematics lessons, we examine some of the participating teachers' reflections and insights.
Maria L. Fernandez and Cynthia O. Anhalt
IN PREPARING STUDENTS FOR ALGEBRA, EDucators must consider the range of mathematics and the continued development of mathematics as a science of pattern and order. Informal explorations involving physical models, data, graphs, and symbols are vital to a solid foundation for students' transition into algebra. Also important is developing a deep understanding of such concepts as decimals, fractions, ratio and proportion, measurement, integers, functional relationships, and variables. As students in elementary school and middle school work with number and operation and other mathematics strands, the focus should be on informal discussion and investigations that lead students to build, describe, represent patterns, develop and apply relationships, make and verify rules or generalizations, and explore mathematical properties (NCTM 1989, 2000).
Julia M. Aguirre, Cynthia O. Anhalt, Ricardo Cortez, Erin E. Turner and Ksenija Simic-Muller
Two major challenges in mathematics teacher education are developing teacher understanding of (a) culturally responsive, social justice–oriented mathematics pedagogies and (b) mathematical modeling as a content and practice standard of mathematics. Although these challenges may seem disparate, the innovation described in this article is designed to address both challenges in synergistic ways. The innovation focuses on a mathematical modeling task related to the ongoing water crisis in Flint, Michigan. Through qualitative analysis of instructor field notes, teachergenerated mathematical models, and teacher survey responses, we found that teachers who participated in the Flint Water Task (FWT) engaged in mathematical modeling and critical discussions about social and environmental justice. The evidence suggests that integrating these 2 foci–by using mathematical modeling to investigate and analyze important social justice issues–can be a high-leverage practice for mathematics teacher educators committed to equity-based mathematics education. Implications for integrating social justice and mathematical modeling in preservice and in-service mathematics teacher education are discussed.