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Courtney Starling and Ian Whitacre

Introduce your students to a fun and innovative game to encourage precise communication

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Ian Whitacre, Robert C. Schoen, Zachary Champagne and Andrea Goddard

Instructional activities designed to encourage relational thinking in primary-grades classrooms can give students advantages when they reason about subtraction.

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Lisa L. Lamb, Jessica Pierson Bishop, Randolph A. Philipp, Bonnie P. Schappelle, Ian Whitacre and Mindy Lewis

Research on how students make sense of and use the minus sign indicates that students struggle to understand the multiple meanings of this symbol. Teachers can support students in developing a robust understanding of each interpretation.

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Jessica Pierson Bishop, Lisa L. Lamb, Randolph A. Philipp, Ian Whitacre and Bonnie P. Schappelle

Reasoning about integers provides students with rich opportunities to look for and make use of structure.

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Karina K. R. Hensberry, Ian Whitacre, Kelly Findley, Jennifer Schellinger and Mary Burr Wheeler

Mathematics teaching that provides opportunities for play embodies many of the Mathematics Teaching Practices described in Principles to Actions: Ensuring Mathematical Success for All (NCTM 2014). PhET interactive simulations (or sims), developed by the PhET Project at the University of Colorado Boulder (, are freely available virtual tools that promote play and exploration in mathematics and science topics for K-16 students.

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Lisa L. Lamb, Jessica Pierson Bishop, Randolph A. Philipp, Ian Whitacre and Bonnie P. Schappelle

In a cross-sectional study, 160 students in Grades 2, 4, 7, and 11 were interviewed about their reasoning when solving integer addition and subtraction open-numbersentence problems. We applied our previously developed framework for 5 Ways of Reasoning (WoRs) to our data set to describe patterns within and across participant groups. Our analysis of the WoRs also led to the identification of 3 problem types: change-positive, all-negatives, and counterintuitive. We found that problem type influenced student performance and tended to evoke a different way of reasoning. We showed that those with more experience with negative numbers use WoRs more flexibly than those with less experience and that flexibility is correlated with accuracy. We provide 3 types of resources for educators: (a) WoRs and problem-types frameworks, (b) characterization of flexibility with integer addition and subtraction, and (c) development of a trajectory of learning about integers.