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## Productive Struggle in Action

Productive struggle is an essential part of mathematics instruction that promotes learning with deep understanding. A video scenario is used to provide a glimpse of productive struggle in action and to showcase its characteristics for both students and teachers. Suggestions for supporting productive struggle are provided.

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## Supporting Probability Understanding through Area Models

Moving beyond memorization of probability rules, the area model can be useful in making some significant ideas in probability more apparent to students. In particular, area models can help students understand when and why they multiply probabilities and when and why they add probabilities.

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## Using Scratch Programming to Explore Coordinates

We present a Scratch task we designed and implemented for teaching and learning coordinates in a dynamic and engaging way. We use the 5Es framework to describe the students' interactions with the task and offer suggestions of how other teachers may adopt it to successfully implement Scratch tasks.

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## The Area Model: Building Mathematical Connections

The area model for multiplication can be used as a tool to help learners make connections between mathematical concepts that are included in mathematics curriculum across grade levels. We present ways the area model might be used in teaching about various concepts and explain how those ideas are connected.

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## Exploring the Mathematics of Gravity

We provide an example from our integrated math and science curriculum where students explore the mathematical relationships underlying various science phenomena. We present the tasks we designed for exploring the covariation relationships that underlie the concept of gravity and discuss the generalizations students made as they interacted with those tasks.

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## Implementing Extended Tasks: Developing Perseverance

Encouraging students to persevere in problem solving can be accomplished using extended tasks where students solve a problem over an extended time. This article presents a structure for use of extended tasks and examples of student thinking that can emerge through such tasks. Considerations for implementation are provided.

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## Quick Blocks: Developing Spatial Sense

This article shares the importance of giving K-12 students opportunities to develop spatial sense. We explain how we designed Quick Blocks as an activity to engage our students in both spatial reasoning and number sense. Several examples of students thinking are shared as well as a classroom dialogue.

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## Instruction and Learning through Formative Assessments

Teachers can use rich mathematical tasks to measure students' conceptual understanding.

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## Designing K-2 Formative Assessment Tasks

Use these principles for constructing and choosing tasks that blend seamlessly into the school day, guide your teaching, and preserve precious instructional time.

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## Formative Assessment at Work in the Classroom

Assessment tools–a rubric, exit slips–inform instruction, clarify expectations, and support learning.