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Amber G. Candela, Melissa D. Boston and Juli K. Dixon

We discuss how discourse actions can provide students greater access to high quality mathematics. We define discourse actions as what teachers or students say or do to elicit student contributions about a mathematical idea and generate ongoing discussion around student contributions. We provide rubrics and checklists for readers to use.

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Stephanie M. Butman

Research on students' learning has made it clear that learning happens through an interaction with others and through communication. In the classroom, the more students talk and discuss their ideas, the more they learn. However, within a one-hour period, it is hard to give everyone an equal opportunity to talk and share their ideas. Organizing students in groups distributes classroom talk more widely and equitably (Cohen and Lotan 1997).

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Nancy S. Roberts and Mary P. Truxaw

A classroom teacher discusses ambiguities in mathematics vocabulary and strategies for ELL students in building understanding.

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Bobson Wong and Larisa Bukalov

Parallel geometry tasks with four levels of complexity involve students in writing and understanding proof.

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Kristen N. Bieda and Jerilynn Lepak

Research explores how to help students build from, instead of building with, examples when justifying mathematical ideas.

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Carol J. Bell

Reasoning and Proof is one of the process standards set forth in NCTM's principles and standards for school mathematics (2000).