An escape room can be a great way for students to apply and practice mathematics they have learned. This article describes the development and implementation of a mathematical escape room with important principles to incorporate in escape rooms to help students persevere in problem solving.

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### Katherine Baker, Naomi A. Jessup, Victoria R. Jacobs, Susan B. Empson, and Joan Case

Productive struggle is an essential part of mathematics instruction that promotes learning with deep understanding. A video scenario is used to provide a glimpse of productive struggle in action and to showcase its characteristics for both students and teachers. Suggestions for supporting productive struggle are provided.

### Amber G. Candela, Melissa D. Boston, and Juli K. Dixon

We discuss how discourse actions can provide students greater access to high quality mathematics. We define discourse actions as what teachers or students say or do to elicit student contributions about a mathematical idea and generate ongoing discussion around student contributions. We provide rubrics and checklists for readers to use.

### Sandra M. Linder and Amanda Bennett

This article presents examples of how early childhood educators (prek-2nd grade) might use their daily read alouds as a vehicle for increasing mathematical talk and mathematical connections for their students.

### Micah S. Stohlmann

Dude Perfect has one of the most popular YouTube channels in the United States. An example mathematical activity connected to a Dude Perfect video is described along with the incorporation of assessing and advancing questions.

### J. Michael Shaughnessy

In celebration of NCTM's 100th birthday I'm very pleased to have this opportunity to share this retrospective on two early career events that had a big impact on mathematics education nationally and internationally, and turned out to be surprisingly instrumental in my own professional development.

### Erell Germia and Nicole Panorkou

We present a Scratch task we designed and implemented for teaching and learning coordinates in a dynamic and engaging way. We use the 5Es framework to describe the students' interactions with the task and offer suggestions of how other teachers may adopt it to successfully implement Scratch tasks.

### Jessica T. Ivy, Sarah B. Bush, and Barbara J. Dougherty

To promote reversibility and strengthen number sense, we created an engaging and novel rational number exploration, which promoted flexible and reflective thinking. A class of fifth-grade students took an active role in a collaborative learning task, discussed their strategies, revisited the task, and reflected on their self-constructed generalizations.

### Michael Weiss

One of the central components of high school algebra is the study of quadratic functions and equations. The Common Core State Standards (CCSSI 2010) for Mathematics states that students should learn to solve quadratic equations through a variety of methods (CCSSM A-REI.4b) and use the information learned from those methods to sketch the graphs of quadratic (and other polynomial) functions (CCSSM A-APR.3). More specifically, students learn to graph a quadratic function by doing some combination of the following:

- Locating its zeros (x-intercepts)
- Locating its y-intercept
- Locating its vertex and axis of symmetry
- Plotting additional points, as needed

### Kent Thele

Encourage investigation of the conic-section attributes of focus, eccentricity, directrix, and semi-latus rectum using polar coordinates and projective geometry.