As mathematical patterns become more complex, students' conditional reasoning skills need to be nurtured so that students continue to critique, construct, and persevere in making sense of these complexities. This article describes a mathematical task designed around the online version of the game Mastermind to safely foster conditional reasoning.

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## Conditional Reasoning Online with Mastermind

### Sean P. Yee, George J. Roy, and LuAnn Graul

## GPS: Equivalent Expressions

### Matt Enlow and S. Asli Özgün-Koca

Equality is one of the main concepts in K–12 mathematics. Students should develop the understanding that equality is a relationship between two mathematical expressions. In this month's GPS, we share tasks asking students one main question: how do they know whether or not two mathematical expressions are equivalent?

## Investigating Using Lesson Study

### Scott Corwin, Michelle Cascio, Katherine Emerson, Laura Henn, and Catherine Lewis

Our middle school mathematics department used lesson study to investigate how to introduce fractions division to our sixth-grade students. We highlight our learnings during the Study and Plan phases, describe our observations during the lesson, and provide tips for educators interested in using lesson study to study their own content.

## Mathematizing Multilevel Marketing

### Aline Abassian and Farshid Safi

This article dives into the importance of engaging students in investigating the mathematics of businesses that pressure their members to recruit new members as a basis for success, also referred to as multi-level marketing (MLM). The mathematics behind these businesses are discussed, and a sample student task is given.

## Discourse Actions to Promote Student Access

### Amber G. Candela, Melissa D. Boston, and Juli K. Dixon

We discuss how discourse actions can provide students greater access to high quality mathematics. We define discourse actions as what teachers or students say or do to elicit student contributions about a mathematical idea and generate ongoing discussion around student contributions. We provide rubrics and checklists for readers to use.

## Giving Birth to Inferential Reasoning

### Ryan Seth Jones, Zhigang Jia, and Joel Bezaire

Too often, statistical inference and probability are treated in schools like they are unrelated. In this paper, we describe how we supported students to learn about the role of probability in making inferences with variable data by building models of real world events and using them to simulate repeated samples.

## GPS: Spring Frogs

### Kelly Hagan and Cheng-Yao Lin

April 2020's GPS department provides tasks for each grade band that invite students to reason with age-appropriate number theoretic concepts.

## Leveraging Read Alouds for Mathematical Connections

### Sandra M. Linder and Amanda Bennett

This article presents examples of how early childhood educators (prek-2nd grade) might use their daily read alouds as a vehicle for increasing mathematical talk and mathematical connections for their students.

## Supporting Teacher Learning through “Sketching Standards”

### Krista L. Strand and Katie Bailey

K-5 teachers deepen their understanding of the Common Core content standards by engaging in collaborative drawing activities during professional development workshops.

## Take flight with mathematics

### Kimberly M. Lilienthal

Exploring airport traffic, usage, hours of operation, and security statistics are all ways to model and bring relevance to math. Students soar while exploring the mathematics of aircraft: dimensions, cargo, fuel, and passenger capacity. Comparing two airports or aircraft would be valuable ways to extend their mathematical journey.