Modify arithmetic problem formats to make the relational equation structure more transparent. We describe this practice and three additional evidence-based practices: (1) introducing the equal sign outside of arithmetic, (2) concreteness fading activities, and (3) comparing and explaining different problem formats and problem-solving strategies.

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### Caroline Byrd Hornburg, Heather Brletic-Shipley, Julia M. Matthews, and Nicole M. McNeil

### LouAnn H. Lovin

Moving beyond memorization of probability rules, the area model can be useful in making some significant ideas in probability more apparent to students. In particular, area models can help students understand when and why they multiply probabilities and when and why they add probabilities.

### Sandra M. Linder and Amanda Bennett

This article presents examples of how early childhood educators (prek-2nd grade) might use their daily read alouds as a vehicle for increasing mathematical talk and mathematical connections for their students.

### Karen S. Karp, Sarah B. Bush, and Barbara J. Dougherty

Try these meaningful alternative approaches to helping students make sense of word problems.

### Stefanie D. Livers, Kristin E. Harbour, and Lindsey Fowler

In our attempts to make a concept easier, we may hinder student learning.

### Ron Lancaster

Since its inception, the Mathematical Lens column has provided teachers with resources to use with their students to make connections between mathematics and the world around us through the use of photographs. The editors and the dozens of teachers who submitted material for columns have taken all of us on a journey around the world to discover where mathematics lives. These columns have offered teachers a license to do mathematics everywhere and to travel far with their students with a full tank of resources.

### Stephen Phelps

### Edited by Anna F. DeJarnette

A monthly set of problems targets a variety of ability levels.

### P. Reneé Hill-Cunningham

Hundreds of species of animals around the world are losing their habitats and food supplies, are facing extinction, or have been hunted or otherwise negatively influenced by humans. Students learn about some of these animals and explore multiple solution strategies as they solve this month's problems. Math by the Month features collections of short activities focused on a monthly theme. These articles aim for an inquiry or problem-solving orientation that includes four activities each for grade bands K–2, 3–4, and 5–6.