How has NCTM leadership shaped the evolution of teaching and learning mathematics? What are your expectations for NCTM leadership?

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### Toya Jones Frank

This article looks back at NCTM's leadership efforts with respect to equity, access, and empowerment and offers suggestions for moving the work forward.

### Jon Orr and Kyle Pearce

Wondering how to create a classroom culture where students don't want to stop exploring mathematics when the bell rings? We were too and that's why we teammed up to uncover how we can Make Math Moments That Matter for every student in the math classroom with a weekly podcast.

### Katherine Baker, Naomi A. Jessup, Victoria R. Jacobs, Susan B. Empson and Joan Case

Productive struggle is an essential part of mathematics instruction that promotes learning with deep understanding. A video scenario is used to provide a glimpse of productive struggle in action and to showcase its characteristics for both students and teachers. Suggestions for supporting productive struggle are provided.

### Jennifer A. Czocher, Diana L. Moss and Luz A. Maldonado

Conventional word problems can't help students build mathematical modeling skills. on their own. But they can be leveraged! We examined how middle and high school students made sense of word problems and offer strategies to question and extend word problems to promote mathematical reasoning.

### Amanda Milewski and Daniel Frohardt

Few high school students associate mathematics with playfulness. In this paper, we offer a series of lessons focused on the underlying algebraic structures of the Rubik's Cube. The Rubik's Cube offers students an interesting space to enjoy the playful side of mathematics, while appreciating mathematics otherwise lost in routine experiences.

### LouAnn H. Lovin

Moving beyond memorization of probability rules, the area model can be useful in making some significant ideas in probability more apparent to students. In particular, area models can help students understand when and why they multiply probabilities and when and why they add probabilities.

### Madhuvanti Anantharajan

Counting is fundamental to early mathematics. Most studies of teaching counting focus on teachers observing children count. The present study compares mathematical ideas that 12 PK, transitional kindergarten (TK), and kindergarten teachers noticed from observing their own students count during a classroom session of Counting Collections with ideas that they noticed outside class time in the same students’ representations of counting on paper. Inviting teacher noticing in representations (a) drew attention to distinct conceptions that children required to represent counting; (b) increased the number of mathematical ideas that participants perceived in students’ thinking; and (c) helped participants perceive different levels in, and their own uncertainties about, students’ understanding. This study suggests that teacher noticing in children’s representations of counting can deepen teachers’ understanding of students’ mathematical thinking.