This article shares the learning experienced by my seventh-grade students during a lesson incorporating LEGO robotics into my mathematics class. I provide evidence of my students' learning, which represents how LEGO robotics can benefit students in the mathematics classroom to support engagement and development of understanding.

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### Zalman Usiskin

This article briefly describes the timing of the first concentrated study of algebra over the 100 years of NCTM, from a 9th-grade course taken by only about 1/5 of students to a course taken by virtually all students, with almost half taking it in 8th grade.

### Randall E. Groth, Jennifer A. Bergner, Jathan W. Austin, Claudia R. Burgess and Veera Holdai

Undergraduate research is increasingly prevalent in many fields of study, but it is not yet widespread in mathematics education. We argue that expanding undergraduate research opportunities in mathematics education would be beneficial to the field. Such opportunities can be impactful as either extracurricular or course-embedded experiences. To help readers envision directions for undergraduate research experiences in mathematics education with prospective teachers, we describe a model built on a design-based research paradigm. The model engages pairs of prospective teachers in working with faculty mentors to design instructional sequences and test the extent to which they support children’s learning. Undergraduates learn about the nature of systematic mathematics education research and how careful analyses of classroom data can guide practice. Mentors gain opportunities to pursue their personal research interests while guiding undergraduate pairs. We explain how implementing the core cycle of the model, whether on a small or large scale, can help teachers make instructional decisions that are based on rich, qualitative classroom data.

### Robyn Ruttenberg-Rozen

Mathematical paradoxes often produce awe and wonder in the mathematics classroom. In this classroom episode, I share a paradoxical task, based on Simpson's Paradox, and its power as an intervention for a child diagnosed with ADHD. The Paradox leveraged his strengths to help him build understandings in proportional reasoning.

How much do you know about presidents of NCTM? For each of the 50 past or present leaders of NCTM, try to match the timeframe of their leadership and the state from which they hailed.

### Milan F. Sherman, Charity Cayton, Candace Walkington and Alexandra Funsch

Research has demonstrated that textbooks exert a considerable influence on students’ learning opportunities and that technology has the potential to transform mathematics instruction. This brief report provides a systematic analysis of how technology tasks are integrated into secondary mathematics curricula by analyzing a sample of 20 textbooks. The results indicate that across the entire sample, nearly 15% of tasks incorporated technology, and of those, 21% used it as a reorganizer of students’ mathematical thinking; calculators were the predominant technology utilized. Investigative textbooks were not more likely to incorporate technology than conventional texts, but algebra 2 texts were more likely to include technology than geometry texts. Implications for instruction and teacher preparation are discussed.

Each month Asked & Answered highlights selected threads from the MyNCTM community. MyNCTM is an online community where NCTM members can ask questions, start and join discussions, and interact with education experts. We encourage you to join the conversation at https://my.nctm.org.

### Sean P. Yee, George J. Roy and LuAnn Graul

As mathematical patterns become more complex, students' conditional reasoning skills need to be nurtured so that students continue to critique, construct, and persevere in making sense of these complexities. This article describes a mathematical task designed around the online version of the game Mastermind to safely foster conditional reasoning.