### Sarah Theule Lubienski, Colleen M. Ganley, Martha B. Makowski, Emily K. Miller, and Jennifer D. Timmer

Despite progress toward gender equity, troubling disparities in mathematical problem-solving performance and related outcomes persist. To investigate why, we build on recurrent findings in previous studies to introduce a new construct, “bold problem solving,” which involves approaching mathematics problems in inventive ways. We introduce a self-report survey of bold problem-solving orientation and find that it mediates gender differences in problem-solving performance for both high-achieving middle school students (*n* = 79) and a more diverse sample of high school students (*n* = 222). Confidence mediates the relation between gender and bold problem-solving orientation, with mixed results for mental rotation skills and teacher-pleasing tendencies as mediators. Overall, the new bold problem-solving construct appears promising for advancing our understanding of gender differences in mathematics.

### Kelly Curtis, Katrina Lindo, and Amanda Jansen

When a ninth-grade teacher used discourse moves aligned with responding to students’ thinking and explicitly promoting productive dispositions, her students reported having positive experiences.

### Dawn Teuscher, Shannon Dingman, Travis A. Olson, and Lisa A. Kasmer

Using descriptions from popular textbooks, the authors share the importance of introducing the definition so students can make sense of reflections both on and off the coordinate grid.

### Kathryn Shafer and S. Asli Özgün-Koca

Growing Problem Solvers provides four original, related, classroom-ready mathematical tasks, one for each grade band. Together, these tasks illustrate the trajectory of learners’ growth as problem solvers across their years of school mathematics.

### Rachel B. Snider

Examples are an essential part of mathematics teaching and learning, used on a daily basis to teach and practice content. Yet, selecting good examples for teaching is complex and challenging. This article presents ideas to consider when selecting examples, drawn from a research study with algebra 2 teachers.

### Allison W. McCulloch, Keith R. Leatham, Jennifer N. Lovett, Nina Gabrielle Bailey, and Samuel D. Reed

### Caroline Byrd Hornburg, Heather Brletic-Shipley, Julia M. Matthews, and Nicole M. McNeil

Modify arithmetic problem formats to make the relational equation structure more transparent. We describe this practice and three additional evidence-based practices: (1) introducing the equal sign outside of arithmetic, (2) concreteness fading activities, and (3) comparing and explaining different problem formats and problem-solving strategies.