Mathematical learning disability (MLD) research often conflates low achievement with disabilities and focuses exclusively on deficits of students with MLDs. In this study, the author adopts an alternative approach using a response-to-intervention MLD classification model to identify the resources students draw on rather than the skills they lack. Detailed diagnostic analyses of the sessions revealed that the students understood mathematical representations in atypical ways and that this directly contributed to the persistent difficulties they experienced. Implications for screening and remediation approaches are discussed.

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### Cathery Yeh

Postscript items are designed as rich “grab-and-go” resources that any teacher could quickly incorporate into his or her classroom repertoire with little effort and maximum impact. The current article shares ideas for using Pattern Blocks to increase students' creativity and problem solving skills while extending their understanding of geometric reasoning and number sense.

### Taajah Felder Witherspoon

Observe fourth graders' thinking in action as they connect the multiplication of whole numbers to arrays.

### Jennifer M. Tobias and Janet B. Andreasen

Using the context of restaurants and ratios to find equivalent fractions can push students' strategies forward.

### Signe E. Kastberg and R. Scott Frye

How do classroom behavioral expectations support the development of students' mathematical reasoning? A sixth-grade teacher and his students developed this example while discussing a ratio comparison problem.

### John K. Lannin and Kathryn B. Chval

Use these specific strategies to confront assumptions about teaching and learning mathematics.

### Janet B. Andreasen and Jessica H. Hunt

To meet diverse student needs, use an approach that is situated in understanding fractions.

### Katherine A. G. Phelps

Fourth- and fifth-grade learners can use differentiated number sets within CGI problem structures to add and subtract fractions with unlike denominators.

### Pamela Edwards Johnson, Melissa Campet, Kelsey Gaber and Emma Zuidema

Three preservice teachers used virtual manipulatives during clinical interviews with students of elementary school age. The technology exposed students' problem-solving strategies and mathematical understanding, promoting just-in-time teaching about the target content. The process of completing and reflecting on the interviews contributed to growth of the preservice teachers' technological pedagogical content knowledge.

### Trena L. Wilkerson, Tommy Bryan and Jane Curry

Using candy bars as models gives students a taste for learning to represent fractions whose denominators are factors of twelve.