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Shiv Karunakaran, Ben Freeburn, Nursen Konuk and Fran Arbaugh

Preservice mathematics teachers are entrusted with developing their future students' interest in and ability to do mathematics effectively. Various policy documents place an importance on being able to reason about and prove mathematical claims. However, it is not enough for these preservice teachers, and their future students, to have a narrow focus on only one type of proof (demonstration proof), as opposed to other forms of proof, such as generic example proofs or pictorial proofs. This article examines the effectiveness of a course on reasoning and proving on preservice teachers' awareness of and abilities to recognize and construct generic example proofs. The findings support assertions that such a course can and does change preservice teachers' capability with generic example proofs.

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Lynn M. McGarvey

A child's decision-making photo activity about pattern identification presents implications for teaching and learning patterns in the early years.

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Janka Szilágyi, Douglas H. Clements and Julie Sarama

This study investigated the development of length measurement ideas in students from prekindergarten through 2nd grade. The main purpose was to evaluate and elaborate the developmental progression, or levels of thinking, of a hypothesized learning trajectory for length measurement to ensure that the sequence of levels of thinking is consistent with observed behaviors of most young children. The findings generally validate the developmental progression, including the tasks and the mental actions on objects that define each level, with several elaborations of the levels of thinking and minor modifications of the levels themselves.

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Frank K. Lester Jr and Leslie P. Steffe

Through my work in mathematics education, I have come to the realization that constituting mathematics education as an academic field entails constructing models of mathematical minds that are constructed by students in the context of mathematics teaching beginning in early childhood and proceeding onward throughout the years of schooling. In this article, I recount events that have led me to this realization.

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Constance Kamii and Kelly A. Russell

Based on Piaget's theory of logico-mathematical knowledge, 126 students in grades 2–5 were asked 6 questions about elapsed time. The main reason found for difficulty with elapsed time is children's inability to coordinate hierarchical units (hours and minutes). For example, many students answered that the duration between 8:30 and 11:00 was 3 hours 30 minutes (because from 8:00 to 11:00 is 3 hours, and 30 more minutes is 3 hours 30 minutes). Coordination was found to begin among logicomathematically advanced students, through reflective (constructive) abstraction from within. The educational implications drawn are that students must be encouraged to think about durations in daily living and to do their own thinking rather than being taught procedures for producing correct answers to elapsed-time questions.