Moving beyond memorization of probability rules, the area model can be useful in making some significant ideas in probability more apparent to students. In particular, area models can help students understand when and why they multiply probabilities and when and why they add probabilities.

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### Zachary A. Stepp

“It's a YouTube World” (Schaffhauser, 2017), and educators are using digital tools to enhance student learning now more than ever before. The research question scholars need to explore is “what makes an effective instructional video?”.

### Katherine E. Lewis

Mathematical learning disability (MLD) research often conflates low achievement with disabilities and focuses exclusively on deficits of students with MLDs. In this study, the author adopts an alternative approach using a response-to-intervention MLD classification model to identify the resources students draw on rather than the skills they lack. Detailed diagnostic analyses of the sessions revealed that the students understood mathematical representations in atypical ways and that this directly contributed to the persistent difficulties they experienced. Implications for screening and remediation approaches are discussed.

### Casey Hord and Samantha Marita

Support math conversations and teach students to approach various problem-solving tasks by encouraging the use of tables.

### Elizabeth T. Walker and Jeffrey S. Molisani

Multiple entry points on the road to assessing students can tell teachers if students can **do** math and therefore **apply** math to real-world problems.

### D. Bruce Jackson

Given two slices of bread—a problem and the answer—students fill in the fixings: their own mathematics reasoning.

### Kathleen Lynch and Jon R. Star

Although policy documents promote teaching students multiple strategies for solving mathematics problems, some practitioners and researchers argue that struggling learners will be confused and overwhelmed by this instructional practice. In the current exploratory study, we explore how 6 struggling students viewed the practice of learning multiple strategies at the end of a yearlong algebra course that emphasized this practice. Interviews with these students indicated that they preferred instruction with multiple strategies to their regular instruction, often noting that it reduced their confusion. We discuss directions for future research that emerged from this work.

### Robert Q. Berry III and Mark W. Ellis

See how one seventh-grade teacher melds NCTM's Process Standards, CCSSM's Standards for Mathematical Practice, and multidimensional teaching to engage students.

### Angeliki Kolovou, Marja van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, and Olaf Köller

This study investigated whether an intervention including an online game contributed to 236 Grade 6 students' performance in early algebra, that is, solving problems with covarying quantities. An exploratory quasi-experimental study was conducted with a pretest-posttest-control-group design. Students in the experimental group were asked to solve at home a number of problems by playing an online game. Although boys outperformed girls in early algebra performance on the pretest as well as on the posttest, boys and girls profited equally from the intervention. Implications of these results for educational practice are discussed.

### Lisa Berger

An analysis of problems from state assessments and other sources helps preservice teachers discover analogous mathematical representations.