The EFFL model empowers students to build strong conceptual understanding of mathematics through carefully designed, equity-minded activities that disrupt the traditional lecture-based classroom.

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## Experience First, Formalize Later

### Sarah Stecher, Luke Wilcox, and Lindsey Gallas

## Math-Inspired Artwork

### Alessandra King, Sophia Ouanes, and Claire Doh

Students and teachers enjoy exploring the boundaries between mathematics and art.

## Technology and Median Income Data: Opening Doors

### Gail Burrill, Joan Funderburk, Becky Byer, and Rachael Gorsuch

Classroom stories show how using technology to investigate the wage gap provided opportunities to develop students’ identities and agency and enabled a classroom culture of sharing and risk-taking.

## Math Metaphors: Windows Into Mathematical Experiences

### Toni L. Amarel and Megan H. Wickstrom

What tales would your students tell about their mathematical experiences? In this article, we describe a task, The Math Metaphor, and how it was utilized in a high school classroom as a window to explore students’ experiences with mathematics.

## Enacting Co-Craft Questions Using Flexible Teaching Platforms

### T. Royce Olarte and Sarah A. Roberts

Teachers can implement a mathematics language routine within in-person/hybrid and remote instructional contexts.

## Formative Assessment in Secondary Mathematics: Moving Theory to Recommendations for Evidence-Based Practice

### Rachael H. Kenney, Michael Lolkus, and Yukiko Maeda

Mathematics teacher educators play a key role in supporting secondary mathematics teachers’ development of effective, research-based formative assessment (FA) practices. We used qualitative research synthesis as a tool to identify actionable recommendations for mathematics teacher educators as they work with teachers on FA practices in secondary classrooms. These recommendations can strengthen the research-based practices of mathematics teacher educators as they support teachers’ collections and uses of FA data to move student thinking forward in secondary mathematics. We share and discuss recommendations for mathematics teacher educators to connect pedagogical content knowledge of students, teaching, and curriculum to FA practices. We also highlight the usefulness of the qualitative synthesis method, meta-aggregation, for generating research-based connections between theory and practice in mathematics education.

## Rethinking Wait Time: What Can 3 Seconds Do?

### Kathryn Early, K. Elizabeth Hammonds, Brea Ratliff, Mariya Rosenhammer, and W. Gary Martin

A high-leverage strategy first discussed more than 50 years ago, wait time has many benefits for both teachers and students yet is not used to its full potential. See how it can enhance your students’ mathematical discourse.

## Using Judicious Telling to Strengthen Literacy in Mathematics

### Ethan P. Smith, Jennifer Kelly, Susan Sappington, Kareemah Warren, and Amanda Jansen

Language is a conduit for communicating and understanding mathematical ideas. This article explores how we can use judicious telling to attend to students’ written and spoken literacy in mathematics.

## Perspectives from Physics: Constraints on Our Curriculum

### Victor Mateas

How trigonometry is used and portrayed differently in mathematics and physics textbooks highlights potential sources for student struggle, constraints on our trigonometry curriculum, and lessons learned when looking across STEM disciplines.

## Access, Power, Identity, and Healing in Mathematics

### Sara Gartland, Shellee Wong, and Laurie Silverstein

Co-teachers in a ninth-grade algebra 1 class offered instruction that integrates mathematical learning with social and emotional learning during hybrid (online and face-to-face) class meetings, promoting healing and positive identity development among students.