When given the opportunity to play with mathematical materials and ideas, children demonstrate their mathematical understanding in innovative ways.

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## Imagine It! Choose Your Own Pattern Block Adventure

### Anita A. Wager, Brittany Caldwell, and Jamie Vescio

## Exploring Prospective Teachers’ Development of the Cartesian Form of Complex Numbers

### Gülseren Karagöz Akar, Merve Saraç, and Mervenur Belin

In this study, we investigated prospective secondary mathematics teachers’ development of a meaning for the Cartesian form of complex numbers by examining the roots of quadratic equations through quantitative reasoning. Data included transcripts of the two sessions of classroom teaching experiments prospective teachers participated in, written artifacts from these teaching sessions, and their answers to pre-and-post written assessment questions. Results point toward prospective teachers’ improved meanings regarding the definition of complex numbers and the algebraic and geometrical meanings of the Cartesian form of complex numbers. Implications for mathematics teacher education include providing specific tasks and strategies for strengthening the knowledge of prospective and in-service teachers.

## Developing Equity Literacy and Critical Statistical Literacy in Secondary Mathematics Preservice Teachers

### Stephanie Casey and Andrew Ross

There is a lack of teacher education materials that develop equity literacy in content courses for preservice secondary mathematics teachers. In response, we created teacher education curriculum materials for introductory statistics that include an integrated focus on developing equity literacy and critical statistical literacy.

In this article, we provide an overview of our materials’ design along with a detailed look at one activity regarding racial demographics and tracking in high school STEM courses. We present evidence regarding the positive impact of these materials on the teacher candidates’ competency, value, and likelihood of applying their equity literacy and critical statistical literacy. Implications for mathematics teacher educators working to develop equity literacy together with content knowledge are discussed.

## Beyond the Sign Rules

### Jessica Pierson Bishop, Lisa L. Lamb, Ian Whitacre, Randolph A. Philipp, and Bonnie P. Schappelle

Are your students negative about integers? Help them experience positivity and joy doing integer arithmetic!

## Challenging Students to Experience Mathematics as Mathematicians

### Jenna R. O’Dell, Cynthia W. Langrall, and Amanda L. Cullen

An unsolved problem gets elementary and middle school students thinking and doing mathematics like mathematicians.

## Empowering Latinx Families to Help Children with Mathematics

### Sabrina De Los Santos Rodríguez, Audrey Martínez-Gudapakkam, and Judy Storeygard

An innovative program addresses the digital divide with short, engaging videos modeling mathematic activities sent to families through a free mobile app.

## Puddle Play!

### Deanna Pecaski McLennan

## Guiding Questions for Selecting Mathematical Examples

### Rachel B. Snider

Examples are an essential part of mathematics teaching and learning, used on a daily basis to teach and practice content. Yet, selecting good examples for teaching is complex and challenging. This article presents ideas to consider when selecting examples, drawn from a research study with algebra 2 teachers.

## Positioning During Group Work on a Novel Task in Algebra II

### Anna F. DeJarnette and Gloriana González

Given the prominence of group work in mathematics education policy and curricular materials, it is important to understand how students make sense of mathematics during group work. We applied techniques from Systemic Functional Linguistics to examine how students positioned themselves during group work on a novel task in Algebra II classes. We examined the patterns of positioning that students demonstrated during group work and how students' positioning moves related to the ways they established the resources, operations, and product of a task. Students who frequently repositioned themselves created opportunities for mathematical reasoning by attending to the resources and operations necessary for completing the task. The findings of this study suggest how students' positioning and mathematical reasoning are intertwined and jointly support collaborative learning through work on novel tasks.

## The Relationship Between Teachers' Mathematical Content and Pedagogical Knowledge, Teachers' Perceptions, and Student Achievement

### Patricia F. Campbell, Masako Nishio, Toni M. Smith, Lawrence M. Clark, Darcy L. Conant, Amber H. Rust, Jill Neumayer DePiper, Toya Jones Frank, Matthew J. Griffin, and Youyoung Choi

This study of early-career teachers identified a significant relationship between upper-elementary teachers' mathematical content knowledge and their students' mathematics achievement, after controlling for student- and teacher-level characteristics. Findings provide evidence of the relevance of teacher knowledge and perceptions for teacher preparation and professional development programs.