In this study, we investigated prospective secondary mathematics teachers’ development of a meaning for the Cartesian form of complex numbers by examining the roots of quadratic equations through quantitative reasoning. Data included transcripts of the two sessions of classroom teaching experiments prospective teachers participated in, written artifacts from these teaching sessions, and their answers to pre-and-post written assessment questions. Results point toward prospective teachers’ improved meanings regarding the definition of complex numbers and the algebraic and geometrical meanings of the Cartesian form of complex numbers. Implications for mathematics teacher education include providing specific tasks and strategies for strengthening the knowledge of prospective and in-service teachers.

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## Exploring Prospective Teachers’ Development of the Cartesian Form of Complex Numbers

### Gülseren Karagöz Akar, Merve Saraç, and Mervenur Belin

## Developing Equity Literacy and Critical Statistical Literacy in Secondary Mathematics Preservice Teachers

### Stephanie Casey and Andrew Ross

There is a lack of teacher education materials that develop equity literacy in content courses for preservice secondary mathematics teachers. In response, we created teacher education curriculum materials for introductory statistics that include an integrated focus on developing equity literacy and critical statistical literacy.

In this article, we provide an overview of our materials’ design along with a detailed look at one activity regarding racial demographics and tracking in high school STEM courses. We present evidence regarding the positive impact of these materials on the teacher candidates’ competency, value, and likelihood of applying their equity literacy and critical statistical literacy. Implications for mathematics teacher educators working to develop equity literacy together with content knowledge are discussed.

## Puddle Play!

### Deanna Pecaski McLennan

## Guiding Questions for Selecting Mathematical Examples

### Rachel B. Snider

Examples are an essential part of mathematics teaching and learning, used on a daily basis to teach and practice content. Yet, selecting good examples for teaching is complex and challenging. This article presents ideas to consider when selecting examples, drawn from a research study with algebra 2 teachers.

## Call for Manuscripts: Connecting Research to Teaching: Bridging the Divide

Have you ever noticed a gap between research and practice? How can research effect change in the classroom? The Connecting Research to Teaching department of Mathematics Teacher (MT) invites classroom teachers to explore research findings in relation to their practice. MT also invites education researchers to demonstrate how results from their studies shape classroom practice. Findings from collaborative action research projects are also encouraged. Evidence of connections from research to practice commonly includes student work and brief transcripts from interviews or classroom videos.

## Call for Manuscripts: Informing Practice

The Editorial Panel of Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School is seeking submissions for a department titled Informing Practice. The articles written for this section should entice and invite classroom teachers to learn about aspects of research that are closely related to their classroom practice.

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Can Technology Help in Mathematical Assessments? A Review of *Computer Aided Assessment of Mathematics*

### Peter Kloosterman and Tracey L. J. Warren

*Computer Aided Assessment of Mathematics* focuses on assessment in college mathematics courses with a special focus on computer-based assessment as a means of providing partial credit and immediate feedback on student work. Written by Chris Sangwin, a senior lecturer in mathematics at the University of Birmingham in the United Kingdom, the book is an important resource for mathematicians or software developers interested in understanding the promise and the pitfalls of using computers to assess student work in college courses. Each chapter of the book addresses a different issue so readers have the option of reading most of them out of order or selecting the chapters that are most valuable to them. Thus, in addition to describing Sangwin's perspectives on teaching and assessing mathematics, this review is designed to help readers decide which chapters in the book will be useful to them.

## The Relationship Between Teachers' Mathematical Content and Pedagogical Knowledge, Teachers' Perceptions, and Student Achievement

### Patricia F. Campbell, Masako Nishio, Toni M. Smith, Lawrence M. Clark, Darcy L. Conant, Amber H. Rust, Jill Neumayer DePiper, Toya Jones Frank, Matthew J. Griffin, and Youyoung Choi

This study of early-career teachers identified a significant relationship between upper-elementary teachers' mathematical content knowledge and their students' mathematics achievement, after controlling for student- and teacher-level characteristics. Findings provide evidence of the relevance of teacher knowledge and perceptions for teacher preparation and professional development programs.

## Difference Not Deficit: Reconceptualizing Mathematical Learning Disabilities

### Katherine E. Lewis

Mathematical learning disability (MLD) research often conflates low achievement with disabilities and focuses exclusively on deficits of students with MLDs. In this study, the author adopts an alternative approach using a response-to-intervention MLD classification model to identify the resources students draw on rather than the skills they lack. Detailed diagnostic analyses of the sessions revealed that the students understood mathematical representations in atypical ways and that this directly contributed to the persistent difficulties they experienced. Implications for screening and remediation approaches are discussed.

## Noticing Children's Participation: Insights Into Teacher Positionality Toward Equitable Mathematics Pedagogy

### Anita A. Wager

This article describes how teachers in a professional development course responded to what they noticed about children's participation in elementary mathematics classrooms and how what they noticed was connected to the teachers' positionality toward equitable mathematics pedagogy. Findings suggest that a lens of participation supported teachers as they considered how to provide more equitable mathematics instruction. Further, the depth to which teachers noticed children's participation was connected to their positionality as equitable mathematics educators.