Start with a strategic process to gather and interpret evidence of students' mathematical understandings and misconceptions; then aim your teaching to address identified needs.
Targeting Instruction with Formative Assessment Probes
Emily R. Fagan, Cheryl Rose Tobey, and Amy R. Brodesky
Comparing two fractions gives a context for exploring students' flexibility with and understanding of mathematical ideas.
Interpreting Standards as Sense-Making Opportunities
Jeffrey M. Choppin, Cynthia H. Callard, and Jennifer S. Kruger
Student-generated algorithms, despite being inelegant and cumbersome, can nevertheless highlight a Common Core standard on rational number subtraction to show flexibility and understanding.
Driving Students to Performance Assessments: Learning What Students Can Do
Elizabeth T. Walker and Jeffrey S. Molisani
Multiple entry points on the road to assessing students can tell teachers if students can do math and therefore apply math to real-world problems.
Sharing Cookies: A Case Study
Gain insight into students' understanding of the concept of fraction as operator as well as their reliance on rote procedures to convert fractions to decimals.
Shifting understanding of mixed numbers
Jennifer Pfotenhauer, Rick Kleine, Yasmin Sitabkhan, and Darrell Earnest
Students had been learning about integers and fractions on the number line. For a lesson on mixed numbers, they solved an assessment problem at the beginning of the lesson. After the lesson, the authors interviewed two students individually and asked each girl to solve the same problem again.
Assessments: Numbers, Context, Graphics, and Assumptions
Barbara Zorin, Patricia D. Hunsader, and Denisse R. Thompson
Learn how to modify classroom evaluation items to avoid potential difficulties that limit a teacher's insight into students' mathematical understanding.
Multidimensional Assessment of CCSSM
Sarah K. Bleiler and Denisse R. Thompson
Measuring student understanding of math concepts in this manner offers insight into the robustness of their knowledge, particularly of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics.