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“Rahul is a Math Nerd” and “Mia Can Be a Drama Queen”: How Mixed-Reality Simulations Can Perpetuate Racist and Sexist Stereotypes

Liza Bondurant and Daniel Reinholz

This article focuses on using simulations of practice in teacher education. We studied preservice teachers’ engagement with a popular simulations platform, which creates mixed-reality simulations of five digital avatars controlled by a single live interactor. Because simulations are only an approximation of real practice, our overarching goal was to understand how mathematical stereotypes might arise in simulated spaces. We used Discourse analysis to classify the stereotypes present and the EQUIP observation tool to understand how PTs made participation opportunities available. We found that the simulations might have perpetuated overtly racist and sexist stereotypes and that negatively stereotyped students were afforded lower-quality opportunities to participate. We discuss how to mitigate potential harm caused and offer guidance for redesigning more equitable and antiracist simulations. Our goal is to raise critical questions for our field around the use of simulations of practice.

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Learning Trajectories for Vertical Coherence

Jere Confrey, Meetal Shah, and Alan Maloney

Three learning trajectories and their connections show how to promote vertical coherence in PK–12 mathematics education.

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Pythagoras, PVC Pipes, and Pianos

Danielle R. Divis and Tyler Johnson

This practitioner article describes a lesson carried out in a high school classroom at the conclusion of a unit on exponential growth. Two teachers use a series of music-related activities to engage students in using and connecting multiple representations of exponential growth while exploring musical frequencies on a piano.