Problems to Ponder provides 28 varying, classroom-ready mathematics problems that collectively span PK–12, arranged in the order of the grade level. Answers to the problems are available online. Individuals are encouraged to submit a problem or a collection of problems directly to mtlt@nctm.org. If published, the authors of problems will be acknowledged.

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## Problems to Ponder

### Chris Harrow and Justin Johns

## Let’s Be Flexible

### Clayton Edwards and Rebecca Robichaux-Davis

## Problems to Ponder

### Chris Harrow and Justin Gregory Johns

Problems to Ponder provides 28 varying, classroom-ready mathematics problems that collectively span PK–12, arranged in the order of the grade level. Answers to the problems are available online. Individuals are encouraged to submit a problem or a collection of problems directly to mtlt@nctm.org. If published, the authors of problems will be acknowledged.

## Harnessing the Power of a Single-Number Number Talk

### Alison Williams and Lisa Lamb

Easy to implement, this strategy has a powerful positive impact in mathematics classrooms.

## Activating the Untapped Potential of Neurodiverse Learners

### David Johnston

Ear to the Ground features voices from several corners of the mathematics education world.

## Problems to Ponder

### Chris Harrow, Justin Johns, and Hassan Lakiss

Problems to Ponder provides 28 varying, classroom-ready mathematics problems that collectively span PK–12, arranged in the order of the grade level. Answers to the problems are available online. Individuals are encouraged to submit a problem or a collection of problems directly to mtlt@nctm.org. If published, the authors of problems will be acknowledged.

## Problems to Ponder

### Justin Gregory Johns, Chris Harrow, and Ruthmae Sears

## Problems to Ponder

### Chris Harrow, Justin Gregory Johns, Ryne Cooper, and Vivekanand Mandel

## Formative Assessment in Secondary Mathematics: Moving Theory to Recommendations for Evidence-Based Practice

### Rachael H. Kenney, Michael Lolkus, and Yukiko Maeda

Mathematics teacher educators play a key role in supporting secondary mathematics teachers’ development of effective, research-based formative assessment (FA) practices. We used qualitative research synthesis as a tool to identify actionable recommendations for mathematics teacher educators as they work with teachers on FA practices in secondary classrooms. These recommendations can strengthen the research-based practices of mathematics teacher educators as they support teachers’ collections and uses of FA data to move student thinking forward in secondary mathematics. We share and discuss recommendations for mathematics teacher educators to connect pedagogical content knowledge of students, teaching, and curriculum to FA practices. We also highlight the usefulness of the qualitative synthesis method, meta-aggregation, for generating research-based connections between theory and practice in mathematics education.

## Rethinking Wait Time: What Can 3 Seconds Do?

### Kathryn Early, K. Elizabeth Hammonds, Brea Ratliff, Mariya Rosenhammer, and W. Gary Martin

A high-leverage strategy first discussed more than 50 years ago, wait time has many benefits for both teachers and students yet is not used to its full potential. See how it can enhance your students’ mathematical discourse.