The Common Core State Standards for Mathematical Practice asks students to look for and make use of structure. Hence, mathematics teacher educators need to prepare teachers to support students’ structural reasoning. In this article, we present tasks and rubrics designed and validated to characterize teachers’ structural reasoning for the purposes of professional development. Initially, tasks were designed and improved using interviews and small pilot studies. Next, we gave written structure tasks to over 600 teachers in two countries and developed and validated rubrics to categorize responses. Our work contributes to the preparation and support of mathematics teachers as they develop their own structural reasoning and their ability to help students develop structural reasoning.

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### Stacy Musgrave, Cameron Byerley, Neil Hatfield, Surani Joshua, and Hyunkyoung Yoon

### Casey Hawthorne and John Gruver

This instructional sequence develops your students’ meaningful understanding of algebraic expressions.

### Katherine Ariemma Marin and Natasha E. Gerstenschlager

Growing Problem Solvers provides four original, related, classroom-ready mathematical tasks, one for each grade band. Together, these tasks illustrate the trajectory of learners’ growth as problem solvers across their years of school mathematics.

### Charles F. Marion

The simplest of prekindergarten equations, 1 + 2 = 3, is the basis for an investigation involving much of high school mathematics, including triangular numbers, arithmetic sequences, and algebraic proofs.

### Michelle T. Chamberlin and Robert A. Powers

Growing Problem Solvers provides four original, related, classroom-ready mathematical tasks, one for each grade band. Together, these tasks illustrate the trajectory of learners’ growth as problem solvers across their years of school mathematics.

### Eric Cordero-Siy and Hala Ghousseini

Three deliberate teaching practices can help students strengthen multiple connections to a unifying concept.

### Blake Peterson

Examining the covariation of triangle dimensions and area offers a geometric context that makes analyzing a piecewise function easier for students.

### Lori Burch, Erik S. Tillema, and Andrew M. Gatza

Use this approach to developing algebraic identities as a generalization of combinatorial and quantitative reasoning. Secondary school students reason about important ideas in the instructional sequence, and teachers consider newfound implications for and extensions of this generalization in secondary algebra curricula.

### Kristin Frank

Lessons that focus on a conceptual understanding offer an opportunity for students to learn about mathematical structure, not just computation.

### William DeLeeuw, Samuel Otten, and Ruveyda Karaman Dundar

The planful use of boardspace can help move the structure and regularity to the visual realm and make it more readily perceivable by students.