Elementary teachers receive conflicting messages about the value of various computa-tional techniques, mental and written, as well as about what strategies, invented and standard, should be introduced and developed at different levels within the elementary school curriculum. They receive advice and directives from educational specialists and national and state curriculum documents.
Barbara Reys and Robert E. Reys are interested in computational methods based on emerging number sense. Their research and writing center on estimation, number sense, mental computation. and calculator use.