Instructional activities designed to encourage relational thinking in primary-grades classrooms can give students advantages when they reason about subtraction.

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Contributor Notes

Ian Whitacre, iwhitacre@fsu.edu, is an assistant professor in the School of Teacher Education at Florida State University.

Robert C. Schoen, rschoen@lsi.fsu.edu, is the associate director of the Florida Center for Research in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (FCR-STEM) at Florida State University.

Zachary Champagne, zchampagne@lsi.fsu.edu, is an assistant in research at FCR-STEM.

Andrea Goddard, goddarda@leonschools.net, is the elementary school mathematics curriculum developer for Leon County Schools. The four authors are interested in using what they learn about children's mathematical thinking to offer practical recommendations to help improve mathematical learning experiences for all students.

(Corresponding author is Whitacre iwhitacre@fsu.edu)(Corresponding author is Schoen rschoen@lsi.fsu.edu)(Corresponding author is Champagne zchampagne@lsi.fsu.edu)(Corresponding author is Goddard goddarda@leonschools.net)
Teaching Children Mathematics

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