These evidence-based instructional strategies can lead to deeper mathematical conversations in upper elementary school classrooms.

Contributor Notes

Chepina Rumsey,, is an assistant professor at Kansas State University, where she teaches graduate and undergraduate mathematics education courses. She is interested in studying arithmetic properties and number sense, mathematical argumentation, and sociomathematical norms that promote discourse, specifically at the elementary school level.

Cynthia W. Langrall,, a professor at Illinois State University in Normal, teaches graduate research and theory courses and elementary and middle school preservice teacher methods courses. Her research interests include the development of elementary and middle school students' probabilistic and statistical reasoning and teacher professional development.

(Corresponding author is Rumsey
(Corresponding author is Langrall
Teaching Children Mathematics
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