Three seventh graders, working as a small group in their math class, had a conversation about adding and subtracting integers. The students discussed the challenges they faced in the assigned task.


Edited by Jennifer Eli,, The University of Arizona, Tucson; George J. Roy,, University of South Carolina, Columbia.

Contributor Notes

Daniel J. Heck,, is Vice President of Horizon Research. His research focuses on supporting students' transitions from informal ideas to formal mathematical understandings.

Jill V. Hamm,, is an associate dean and William C. Friday Distinguished Professor at the School of Education, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Her research centers on classroom peer relations.

Jessica A. Dula,, and Pippa Hoover,, are research associates at Horizon Research. Their research investigates engaging students in productive mathematical discussions to support their learning of math content.

Abigail S. Hoffman,, is a research associate at the Center for Developmental Science, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill. Her research centers on classroom peer relations.

(Corresponding author is Heck author is Hamm author is Dula author is Hoover author is Hoffman
Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School


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