Detecting and Reducing Bias in Questioning Patterns

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This article explores teaching practices described in NCTM's Principles to Actions: Ensuring Mathematical Success for All. Investigating and mitigating implicit bias in questions are discussed in this article, which is another installment in the series.

Contributor Notes

Beth Herbel-Eisenmann,, is a former junior high school mathematics teacher and is currently a professor in teacher education at Michigan State University in East Lansing. She partners with secondary mathematics teachers to learn about becoming more purposeful in facilitating productive and powerful mathematics classroom discourse.

Niral Shah,, a former high school mathematics teacher, is currently an assistant professor in teacher education at Michigan State University. He collaborates with K–12 teachers to identify and mitigate implicit bias in classrooms using the EQUIP classroom observation tool.

(Corresponding author is Herbel-Eisenmann author is Shah
Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School


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