Collaborative Planning as a Process

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All students should be provided with opportunities to develop conceptual understanding prior to procedural fluency (NCTM 2014; CCSSI 2010). To develop students' conceptual understanding, teachers must learn such skills as how to select, plan, and enact cognitively demanding tasks (CDT) (Lambert and Stylianou 2013; Smith, Bill, and Hughes 2008) and to evaluate evidence of student learning (Hiebert et al. 2007). Therefore, teachers need opportunities to develop these skills to maximize their students' learning outcomes. Starting with a well-designed CDT is essential. In other words, before planning the Justin D. Boyle and Sarah B. Kaiser enactment of a task, teachers should analyze the task and make revisions to align it with student learning goals that promote conceptual understanding (Hiebert et al. 2007; Smith and Stein 2011).

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Contributor Notes

Justin D. Boyle, justinb@ua.edu, is an assistant professor at the University of Alabama in Tuscaloosa. He is interested in learning how best to support teachers to maximize students' learning opportunities, with a focus on developing conceptual understanding and constructing mathematical arguments.

Sarah B. Kaiser, kaisersb@vestavia.k12.al.us, is a first-year teacher at Vestavia Hills High School in Vestavia Hills, Alabama. She is interested in collaborating with teachers to deepen content knowledge and instructional practices.

(Corresponding author is Boyle justinb@ua.edu)(Corresponding author is Kaiser kaisersb@vestavia.k12.al.us)
Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School

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