Collaborative Planning as a Process

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All students should be provided with opportunities to develop conceptual understanding prior to procedural fluency (NCTM 2014; CCSSI 2010). To develop students' conceptual understanding, teachers must learn such skills as how to select, plan, and enact cognitively demanding tasks (CDT) (Lambert and Stylianou 2013; Smith, Bill, and Hughes 2008) and to evaluate evidence of student learning (Hiebert et al. 2007). Therefore, teachers need opportunities to develop these skills to maximize their students' learning outcomes. Starting with a well-designed CDT is essential. In other words, before planning the Justin D. Boyle and Sarah B. Kaiser enactment of a task, teachers should analyze the task and make revisions to align it with student learning goals that promote conceptual understanding (Hiebert et al. 2007; Smith and Stein 2011).

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Contributor Notes

Justin D. Boyle,, is an assistant professor at the University of Alabama in Tuscaloosa. He is interested in learning how best to support teachers to maximize students' learning opportunities, with a focus on developing conceptual understanding and constructing mathematical arguments.

Sarah B. Kaiser,, is a first-year teacher at Vestavia Hills High School in Vestavia Hills, Alabama. She is interested in collaborating with teachers to deepen content knowledge and instructional practices.

(Corresponding author is Boyle author is Kaiser
Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School


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