Rough-Draft Talk in Mathematics Classrooms

This article describes a useful approach, called rough-draft talk, to create a classroom culture in which talking is used as a tool in the classroom.


Edited by Alessandra King,, Holton-Arms School, Bethesda, Maryland, and Julie Amador,, University of Idaho, Coeur d'Alene. Readers are encouraged to submit manuscripts through

Contributor Notes

Amanda Jansen,, teaches elementary school and middle school prospective mathematics teachers in the School of Education at the University of Delaware in Newark.

Brandy Cooper,, teaches sixth-grade mathematics at Milford Central Academy in Milford, Delaware.

Stefanie Vascellaro,, is a sixth-grade mathematics teacher at Everett Meredith Middle School in the Appoquinimink School District in Middletown, Delaware.

Philip Wandless,, is an eighth-grade mathematics teacher at Smyrna Middle School in Smyrna, Delaware. All four authors are invested in improving classroom discourse to engage more students in learning mathematics.

(Corresponding author is Jansen author is Cooper author is Vascellaro author is Wandless
Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School


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