12 Math Rules That Expire in the Middle Grades

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Karen S. Karp
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Sarah B. Bush
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Barbara J. Dougherty
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Turn away from overgeneralizations and consider alternative terminology and notation to support student understanding.

Contributor Notes

Karen S. Karp, kkarp1@jhu.edu, is a visiting professor at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland. She is professor emeritus at the University of Louisville in Kentucky, a past member of the NCTM Board of Directors, and a former president of the Association of Mathematics Teacher Educators. Her current scholarship focuses on teaching interventions for students in the elementary and middle grades who are struggling to learn mathematics.

Sarah B. Bush, sbush@bellarmine.edu, an associate professor of mathematics education at Bellarmine University in Louisville, Kentucky, is a former middle-grades math teacher who is interested in relevant and engaging middle-grades math activities.

Barbara J. Dougherty, barbdougherty32@icloud.com, a research professor for mathematics education at the University of Missouri–Columbia, is a past member of the NCTM Board of Directors and the editor for the Putting Essential Understandings into Practice series. She is a co-author of conceptual assessments for progress monitoring in algebra and curriculum modules for middle school interventions for students who struggle.

(Corresponding author is Karp kkarp1@jhu.edu)
(Corresponding author is Bush sbush@bellarmine.edu)
(Corresponding author is Dougherty barbdougherty32@icloud.com)
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Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School
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