Formal notions of function, which appear in middle school, are discussed in light of how teachers might complement the input-output notion with a covariation perspective.


Edited by Amy Ellis,, and Despina Stylianou, Readers are encouraged to submit manuscripts through

Contributor Notes

Eric Weber,, is an assistant professor of mathematics education at Oregon State University in Corvallis, Oregon. He is interested in student learning about functions and rates of change.

(Corresponding author is Weber
Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School


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