Informing Practice: Developing Symbol Sense for the Minus Sign

research matters for teachers

Research on how students make sense of and use the minus sign indicates that students struggle to understand the multiple meanings of this symbol. Teachers can support students in developing a robust understanding of each interpretation.


Edited by Debra I. Johanning, Readers are encouraged to submit manuscripts through

Contributor Notes

Lisa L. Lamb,; Jessica Pierson Bishop,; Randolph A. Philipp,; Bonnie P. Schappelle,; Ian Whitacre,; and Mindy Lewis,, work together at San Diego State University to investigate grades K–12 students' conceptions of negative numbers.

(Corresponding author is Lamb author is Bishop author is Philipp author is Schappelle author is Whitacre author is Lewis
Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School


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