In this article, I share a design-based research intervention meant to help mathematics district leaders build their capacity to engage with research quality. I present my design (i.e., principles, key features, and intervention structure) and elaborate on how the features of the design allowed for mathematics district leaders’ sensemaking of educational research quality, especially regarding the process for collecting data and research implications. I conclude with recommendations for mathematics teacher educators on how they might adapt my design to their contexts.

Contributor Notes

F. Paul Wonsavage, Lastinger Center for Learning, College of Education, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611

  • Collapse
  • Expand
Mathematics Teacher Educator
  • Abolafia, M. Y. (2010). Narrative construction as sensemaking: How a Central Bank thinks. Organization Studies, 31(3), 349367. https://doi.org/10.1177/0170840609357380

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Arbaugh, F. , Herbel-Eisenmann, B. , Ramirez, N. , Knuth, E. , Kranendonk, H. , & Quander, J. R. (2010). Linking research and practice: The NCTM research agenda conference report. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bakker, A. (2018). Design research in education: A practical guide for early career researchers. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203701010

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Behrstock, E. , Drill, K. , & Miller, S. (2009). Is the supply in demand? Exploring how, when, and why teachers use research. Learning Point Associates. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED512564.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Berge, Z. L. (1995). Facilitating computer conferencing: Recommendations from the field. Educational Technology,35(1), 2230.https://www.jstor.org/stable/44428247

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Berman, P. (1981). Educational change: An implementation paradigm. In R. Lehming & M. Kane (Eds.), Improving schools: Using what we know (pp. 253286). Sage.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brown, A. D. , Stacey, P. , & Nandhakumar, J. (2008). Making sense of sensemaking narratives. Human Relations, 61(8), 10351062. https://doi.org/10.1177/0018726708094858

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cai, J. , Morris, A. , Hwang, S. , Hohensee, C. , Robison, V. , & Hiebert, J. (2017). Improving the impact of educational research. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 48(1), 26. https://doi.org/10.5951/jresematheduc.48.1.0002

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cain, T. (2015). Teachers’ engagement with research texts: Beyond instrumental, conceptual or strategic use. Journal of Education for Teaching, 41(5), 478492. https://doi.org/10.1080/02607476.2015.1105536

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cain, T. (2017). Denial, opposition, rejection or dissent: Why do teachers contest research evidence? Research Papers in Education, 32(5), 611625. https://doi.org/10.1080/02671522.2016.1225807

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cobb, P. , Confrey, J. , diSessa, A. , Lehrer, R. , & Schauble, L. (2003). Design experiments in educational research. Educational Researcher, 32(1), 913. https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X032001009

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cobb, P. , & Smith, T. (2008). The challenge of scale: Designing schools and districts as learning organizations for instructional improvement in mathematics. In T. Wood , B. Jaworski , K. Krainer , P. Sullivan , & D. Tirosh (Eds.), International handbook of mathematics teacher education(Vol. 3, pp. 231254). Sense.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Coburn, C. E. , Bae, S. , & Turner, E. O. (2008). Authority, status, and the dynamics of insider–outsider partnerships at the district level. Peabody Journal of Education, 83(3), 364399. https://doi.org/10.1080/01619560802222350

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Coburn, C. E. , & Talbert, J. E. (2006). Conceptions of evidence use in school districts: Mapping the terrain. American Journal of Education, 112(4), 469495. https://doi.org/10.1086/505056

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Corbin, J. , & Strauss, A. (2008). Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory (3rd ed., pp. 117142). Sage. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781452230153.n6

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cornelissen, J. (2005). Beyond compare: Metaphor in organization theory. Academy of Management Review, 30(4), 751764. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.2005.18378876

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Daly, A. J. , Finnigan, K. S. , Moolenaar, N. M. , & Che, J. (2014). The critical role of brokers in the access and use of evidence at the school and district level. In K. S. Finnigan & A. J. Daly (Eds.), Using research evidence in education (pp. 1331). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-04690-7_3

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dorn, E. , Hancock, B. , Sarakatsannis, J. , & Viruleg, E. (2020). COVID-19 and student learning in the United States: The hurt could last a lifetime. McKinsey & Company, 1, 19.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Every Student Succeeds Act, 20 U.S.C. § 6301 (2015). https://www.congress.gov/114/plaws/publ95/PLAW-114publ95.pdf

  • Farley-Ripple, E. N. , Tilley, K. , Mead, H. , Van Horne, S. , & Agboh, D. (2022). How is evidence use enacted in schools? A mixed methods multiple case study of “deep-use” schools. The Center for Research Use in Education and the Center for Research Use in Education and Social Policy, University of Delaware. https://crue.cehd.udel.edu/wp-content/uploads/2023/05/Deep-Use-Schools-Case-Studies-Report.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Furtak, E. M. , & Heredia, S. C. (2014). Exploring the influence of learning progressions in two teacher communities. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 51(8), 9821020. https://doi.org/10.1002/tea.21156

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gephart, R. P. (1993). The textual approach: Risk and blame in disaster sensemaking. Academy of Management Journal, 36(6), 14651514.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Glaser, B. G. (1965). The constant comparative method of qualitative analysis. Social Problems, 12(4), 436445. https://doi.org/10.2307/798843

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gore, J. M. , & Gitlin, A. D. (2004). [RE]Visioning the academic–teacher divide: Power and knowledge in the educational community. Teachers and Teaching, 10(1), 3558. https://doi.org/10.1080/13540600320000170918

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Greenhalgh, T. , Robert, G. , Macfarlane, F. , Bate, P. , & Kyriakidou, O. (2004). Diffusion of innovations in service organizations: Systematic review and recommendations. The Milbank Quarterly, 82(4), 581629. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0887-378X.2004.00325.x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gutiérrez, K. D. , & Penuel, W. R. (2014). Relevance to practice as a criterion for rigor. Educational Researcher, 43(1), 1923. https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X13520289

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hall, E. (2009). Engaging in and engaging with research: Teacher inquiry and development. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 15(6), 669681. https://doi.org/10.1080/13540600903356985

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Heck, D. J. , Tarr, J. E. , Hollebrands, K. F. , Walker, E. N. , Berry III , R. Q., Baltzley , P. C., Rasmussen , C. L. , & King, K. D. (2012). Reporting research for practitioners: Proposed guidelines. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 43(2), 126143. https://doi.org/10.5951/jresematheduc.43.2.0126

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hemsley-Brown, J. , & Sharp, C. (2003). The use of research to improve professional practice: A systematic review of the literature. Oxford Review of Education, 29(4), 449471. https://doi.org/10.1080/0305498032000153025

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Honig, M. I. , & Coburn, C. (2008). Evidence-based decision making in school district central offices: Toward a policy and research agenda. Educational Policy, 22(4), 578608. https://doi.org/10.1177/0895904807307067

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jung, H. , & Brady, C. (2020). Maintaining rich dialogic interactions in the transition to synchronous online learning. Information and Learning Sciences. 121(5/6), 391400. https://doi.org/10.1108/ILS-04-2020-0096

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Klein, G. , Moon, B. , & Hoffman, R. R. (2006). Making sense of sensemaking 1: Alternative perspectives. IEEE Intelligent Systems, 21(4), 7073. https://doi.org/10.1109/MIS.2006.75

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Korthagen, F. A. J. (2007). The gap between research and practice revisited. Educational Research and Evaluation, 13(3), 303310. https://doi.org/10.1080/13803610701640235

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Korthagen, F. , Loughran, J. , & Russell, T. (2006). Developing fundamental principles for teacher education programs and practices. Teaching and Teacher Education, 22(8), 10201041. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2006.04.022

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Labaree, D. F. (2003). The peculiar problems of preparing educational researchers. Educational Researcher, 32(4), 1322. https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X032004013

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lampert, M. , Franke, M. L. , Kazemi, E. , Ghousseini, H. , Turrou, A. C. , Beasley, H. , Cunard, A. , & Crowe, K. (2013). Keeping it complex using rehearsals to support novice teacher learning of ambitious teaching. Journal of Teacher Education, 64(3), 226243. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022487112473837

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Levin, B. (2013). To know is not enough: Research knowledge and its use. Review of Education, 1(1), 231. https://doi.org/10.1002/rev3.3001

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Louis, M. R. (1980). Surprise and sense making: What newcomers experience in entering unfamiliar organizational settings. Administrative Science Quarterly, 25(2), 226251. https://doi.org/10.2307/2392453

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Maitlis, S. , & Christianson, M. (2014). Sensemaking in organizations: Taking stock and moving forward. Academy of Management Annals, 8(1), 57125. https://doi.org/10.5465/19416520.2014.873177

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Martin, F. , Wang, C. , & Sadaf, A. (2020). Facilitation matters: Instructor perception of helpfulness of facilitation strategies in online courses. Online Learning, 24(1), 2849. https://doi.org/10.24059/olj.v24i1.1980

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McCulloch, A. W. , Hollebrands, K. , Lee, H. , Harrison, T. , & Mutlu, A. (2018). Factors that influence secondary mathematics teachers’ integration of technology in mathematics lessons. Computers & Education, 123, 2640. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2018.04.008

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McCulloch, A. W. , Lovett, J. N. , Dick, L. K. , & Cayton, C. (2021). Positioning students to explore math with technology. Mathematics Teacher: Learning and Teaching PK–12, 114(10), 738749. https://doi.org/10.5951/MTLT.2021.0059

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Miller, B. , & Pasley, J. (2012). What do we know and how well do we know it? Identifying practice-based insights in education. Evidence & Policy, 8(2), 193212. https://doi.org/10.1332/174426412X640081

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Morge, S. P. , Schwartz, C. S. , & Hargrove, T. (2020). Strategies and tools for promoting discourse during mathematics problem-solving in online settings. In P. Wachira & J. Keengwe (Eds.), Handbook of research on online pedagogical models for mathematics teacher education (pp. 216233). IGI Global. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-7998-1476-4.ch013

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2018). How people learn II: Learners, contexts, and cultures. National Academies Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. (2000). Principles and standards for school mathematics.

  • NCTM Research Committee, Heid, M. K. , Larson, M. , Fey, J. T. , Strutchens, M. E. , Middleton, J. A. , Gutstein, E. , King, K. , & Tunis, H. (2006). The challenge of linking research and practice. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 37(2), 7686.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nelson, S. R. , Leffler, J. C. , & Hansen, B. A. (2009). Toward a research agenda for understanding and improving the use of research evidence. Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. (2002). Public Law PL 107-110, 20 U.S.C. § 6319.

  • Nutley, S. M. , Walter, I. , & Davies, H. T. (2007). Using evidence: How research can inform public services. Policy Press. https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctt9qgwt1

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Penuel, W. R. , Briggs, D. C. , Davidson, K. L. , Herlihy, C. , Sherer, D. , Hill, H. C. , Farrell, C. C. , & Allen, A.-R. (2016). Findings from a national survey of research use among school and district leaders (Technical Report No. 1). National Center for Research in Policy and Practice.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rehn, N. , Maor, D. & McConney, A. (2018). The specific skills required of teachers who deliver K–12 distance education courses by synchronous videoconference: Implications for training and professional development, Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 27(4), 417429. https://doi.org/10.1080/1475939X.2018.1483265

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rickinson, M. , Walsh, L. , Gleeson, J. , Cutler, B. , Cirkony, C. , & Salisbury, M. (2022). Using research well in educational practice. In C. Young (Ed.), Who cares about using education research in policy and practice?: Strengthening research engagement(pp. 182198). Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. https://doi.org/10.1787/65aac033-en

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rorrer, A. K. , Skrla, L. , & Scheurich, J. J. (2008). Districts as institutional actors in educational reform. Educational Administration Quarterly, 44(3), 307357. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013161X08318962

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rouleau, L. , & Balogun, J. (2011). Middle managers, strategic sensemaking, and discursive competence. Journal of Management Studies, 48(5), 953983. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.2010.00941.x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Seeley, C. (2005). President’s message: Using research to improve teaching. NCTM News Bulletin, 41(8), 3.

  • Shavelson, R. J. , & Towne, L. (2002). Scientific research in education. National Academy Press Publications Sales Office.

  • Shkedi, A. (1998). Teachers’ attitudes towards research: A challenge for qualitative researchers. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 11(4), 559577. https://doi.org/10.1080/095183998236467

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Silver, E. A. , & Lunsford, C. (2017). Linking research and practice in mathematics education: Perspectives and pathways. In J. Cai (Ed.), Compendium for research in mathematics education (pp. 2847). National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stein, M. K. , & Smith, M. (2011). Five practices for orchestrating productive mathematics discussions. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Spillane, J. P. (1998). State policy and the non-monolithic nature of the local school district: Organizational and professional considerations. American Educational Research Journal, 35(1), 3363. https://doi.org/10.3102/00028312035001033

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Spillane, J. P. (2000). Cognition and policy implementation: District policymakers and the reform of mathematics education. Cognition and Instruction, 18(2), 141179. https://doi.org/10.1207/S1532690XCI1802_01

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • TNTP (Nov., 2020). Learning acceleration guide: Accelerating learning in the 2020–2021 school year. TNTP, Inc., 121.

  • Tseng, V. (2012). The uses of research in policy and practice and commentaries. Social Policy Report, 26(2), 124. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2379-3988.2012.tb00071.x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vanderlinde, R. , & van Braak, J. (2010). The gap between educational research and practice: Views of teachers, school leaders, intermediaries and researchers. British Educational Research Journal, 36(2), 299316. https://doi.org/10.1080/01411920902919257

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Webb, J. , & Wilson, P. H. (2022). Designing rehearsals for secondary mathematics teachers to refine practice. Mathematics Teacher Educator, 10(2), 129142. https://doi.org/10.5951/MTE.2020.0073

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Weick, K. E. (1988). Enacted sensemaking in crisis situations. Journal of Management Studies, 25(4), 305317. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.1988.tb00039.x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Weick, K. E. (1995). Sensemaking in organizations (Vol. 3). Sage.

  • Weick, K. E. , Sutcliffe, K. M. , & Obstfeld, D. (2005). Organizing and the process of sensemaking. Organization Science, 16(4), 409421. https://doi.org/10.1287/orsc.1050.0133

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wenner, J. A. , & Campbell, T. (2017). The theoretical and empirical basis of teacher leadership: A review of the literature. Review of Educational Research, 87(1), 134171. https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654316653478

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wilson, P. H. , Webb, J. , & Ashe, L. (2018). Mathematics education stakeholders professional networks and use of research evidence. In T. E. Hodges , G. J. Roy , & A. M. Tyminski (Eds.), Proceedings of the 40th annual meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (pp. 342349). University of South Carolina & Clemson University.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wonsavage, F. P. (2021). The mathematics district leader research group: Building the capacity of mathematics district leaders to engage with educational research [Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of North Carolina at Greensboro].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 1413 1413 454
Full Text Views 3045 3045 17
PDF Downloads 154 154 17
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0