Complete the What?

Anna Clifford
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Ji-Won Son
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Solving quadratic functions is a cornerstone of first year algebra, but students struggle to gain a conceptual understanding of the process of completing the square. With the help of a historical perspective, students can gain both a deep geometric and algebraic understanding of the algorithm.

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Contributor Notes

Anna Clifford,, is a seventh- and eighth-grade math teacher in Buffalo, New York. She teaches with a focus on conceptual development and is interested in student engagement in urban education.

Ji-Won Son,, is an associate professor of mathematics education at University at Buffalo–The State University of New York. Her areas of research include teacher noticing and learning, mathematics textbook analysis, elementary and secondary preservice teachers' knowledge development for teaching, preservice and in-serivce teachers' curriculum material use, and comparative study.

(Corresponding author is Clifford
(Corresponding author is Son
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