When Active Learning Is Inequitable: Women’s Participation Predicts Gender Inequities in Mathematical Performance

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  • 1 San Diego State University
  • | 2 Virginia Tech
  • | 3 Florida State University
  • | 4 California State University–Fullerton
  • | 5 The University of Virginia’s College at Wise
  • | 6 Western Kentucky University
  • | 7 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University
  • | 8 University of Washington–Seattle

This article investigates the implementation of inquiry-oriented instruction in 20 undergraduate mathematics classrooms. In contrast to conventional wisdom that active learning is good for all students, we found gendered performance differences between women and men in the inquiry classes that were not present in a noninquiry comparison sample. Through a secondary analysis of classroom videos, we linked these performance inequities to differences in women’s participation rates across classes. Thus, we provide empirical evidence that simply implementing active learning is insufficient, and that the nature of inquiry-oriented classrooms is highly consequential for improving gender equity in mathematics.

Footnotes

This material is based on work supported by the National Science Foundation under IUSE Awards DUE1431595, DUE1431641, DUE 1431393, and DUE1943146.

Contributor Notes

Daniel Reinholz, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182; daniel.reinholz@sdsu.edu

Estrella Johnson, Department of Mathematics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061; strej@vt.edu

Christine Andrews-Larson, College of Education, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306; cjlarson@fsu.edu

Amelia Stone-Johnstone, Department of Mathematics, California State University–Fullerton, Fullerton, CA 92831; astonejohnstone@fullerton.edu

Jessica Smith, College of Education, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306; jls17r@my.fsu.edu

Brooke Mullins, Department of Mathematics & Computer Science; The University of Virginia’s College at Wise, Wise, VA 24293; sbs3v@uvawise.edu

Nicholas Fortune, Department of Mathematics, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY 42101; nicholas.fortune@wku.edu

Karen Keene, Department of STEM Education, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, FL 32114; Karen.Keene@erau.edu

Niral Shah, Department of Learning Sciences & Human Development, University of Washington–Seattle, Seattle, WA 98105; niral@uw.edu

Journal for Research in Mathematics Education
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